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LARM111. Leereenheid 4 / Study Unit 4 Werk en familie / Work and family. Leeruitkomste / outcomes.

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larm111

LARM111

Leereenheid 4 / Study Unit 4

Werk en familie / Work and family

leeruitkomste outcomes
Leeruitkomste / outcomes
  • Die individuele-lewensiklus en familielewensiklustedefinieër en aantetoonwaardaarraakpuntetussenhulle is / define the individual life cycle and the family life cycle, and show the points of intersection between them
  • Die betekenis en belangrikheid van sosialiseringvirwerkersteverduidelik en voorbeelde van sosialiseringsagentete gee / explain the significance of socialisation for workers and give examples of socialisation agents
leeruitkomste outcomes1
Leeruitkomste / outcomes
  • Voorbeelde van konflik van rolle en oorlading van rollete gee / give examples of role conflict and role overload
  • Twee voorgesteldemetodesom ‘n beterwisselwerkingtussen die gesin en werktebevorder, tenoem en teverduidelik / name and explain at least two proposed methods for combining family and work more smoothly
  • Drie of meersoortekonfliktussenwerk en die familieleweteidentifiseer / identify three or more types of conflict between work and family life
die lewensiklus perspektief the life cycle perspective
Die lewensiklusperspektief / the life-cycle perspective
  • Die lewensiklus is die orde van rollevanafgeboorte tot dood / the life cycle is the ordering of roles from infancy to death
  • Rolle is taakverwant en ouderdomverwant / roles are task-related and age-related
  • Reëls is normewatons help omteverstaanwatgeskik is omtedoen op ‘n sekere stadium / rules called norms help us understand what is appropriate at each stage
  • Definisie: Norme is sosialereëlswat ‘n invloed het op hoe ons dink, voel en optree / Definition: norms are social rules for thinking, feeling, or behaving
  • Die bestaan van normeskepverwagtingevirindividue / the existence of norms creates expectations for individuals
  • Die norm of verwagtingvirbv. ‘n middeljarige man is dathy ‘n standvastigewerkmoethê / it is normative for a middle-aged man to be steadily employed
die lewensiklus perspektief the life cycle perspective1
Die lewensiklusperspektief / the life-cycle perspective
  • Normekaneffensbuigbaarweesondersekereomstandighede / norms are somewhat flexible depending on mediating circumstances
  • Bv. Gestremdheid / example disability or retrenchments
  • Norme help om die rollewatmensespeeltedefinieër / norms help define the roles people play
  • ‘n Rol is gedragwatgeassosieër word met ‘n spesifiekeposisie in die gemeenskap / a role is a set of behaviours associated with a particular position in society
die lewensiklus perspektief the life cycle perspective2
Die lewensiklusperspektief / the life-cycle perspective
  • Ons het almalrolle: / We all play roles:
    • Familierollesoosdogter, suster, ouer en eggenoot /family roles such as daughter, sister, parent, and spouse
    • Werkrollesooswerknemer of werkgewer / work roles such as employee or employer
    • Beroeprollesoossjef, haarkapper, sekretaresseens. / occupation roles such as cook, barber, secretary etc.
    • Hiërargieseposisiesoosleerling, toesighouer, bestuurder, hoof-verpleegster / hierarchical position such as apprentice, supervisor, manager, head nurse
    • Aard van werksoosvoltyds, deeltyds, tydelik / permanence of employment such as part-time, temporary, tenured
die lewensiklus perspektief the life cycle perspective3
Die lewensiklusperspektief / the life-cycle perspective
  • Baie van ons vervul verskeie rolle buite ons werk en familie rolle / many of us play multiple roles outside our work and family roles
  • Ons is burgers, verbruikers, belastingbetalers, gelisensieërde drywers, kerk- of klub lede, tennisspelers / we are citizens, consumers, taxpayers, licensed drivers, church or club members, and tennis players
individuele lewensiklus individual life cycle
Individuelelewensiklus / individual life cycle
  • Daar is verskillendeopeenvolgenderollewatonsvervul in onslewens / it is normative that people acquire some roles sequentially
  • Onsverwagdatkindersskool toe salgaan; datadolessentein skoolsalbly, of werk toe salgaan, of by die weermagsalaansluit; datjongvolwasseneswerksalsoek; en datouermensemettertydsalaftree / we expect that children will be in school; that adolescents will stay in school, to work, or join the military; that young adults will seek employment; and that at some point elderly persons will retire
  • Hierdie stadiums van die individule-lewensiklus het ekonomiese, sosiale en sielkundigebetekenis / these stages of the individual life cycle have economic, social, and psychological significance
individuele lewensiklus individual life cycle1
Individuelelewensiklus / individual life cycle
  • Daar is sekere uitdagings waarmee mense te doen kry tydens hulle lewensiklus / There are certain challenges facing people during their life cycle
  • Die oplossing van elke uitdaging vorm jou persoonlikheid en affekteer hoe ‘n persoon die volgende uitdaging hanteer / the resolution of each challenge shapes the personality, which in turn affects how the person faces the next challenge the life cycle brings
individuele lewensiklus individual life cycle2
Individuelelewensiklus / individual life cycle
  • In die werkskonteks, word die normatieweorde van rollesomtyds die opeenvolgendelewensplangenoem / when applied to work, the normative ordering of roles is sometimes called the sequential life plan
  • In die opeenvolgendelewensplankomonderrigeerstevoor en berei ‘n persoonvoorvirwerk; danvolg die werkendejare, en uiteindelikvolg die ontspanningsjare van aftrede / in the sequential life plan, education comes first as a preparation for work; then comes the working years, and finally the leisure years of retirement
  • Dit is buigbaarbv. ‘n tienerkandeeltydswerkterwylhynog in die skool is / it is flexible for example, a teenager may work part time while still in school
die loopbaan the career
Die loopbaan / the career
  • Sosioloëonderskeitussen die individuele-lewensiklus en loopbaan / sociologists distinguish the individual life cycle from the career
  • Definisie: Die lewensiklusverwysna ‘n verskeidenheid van gebeurewatplaasvind in ‘n persoon se lewe, bv. werksgebeurtenisse, familiegebeurtenisse en anderouderdomverwantegebeurtenisse / Definition: the life cycle refers to a variety of events that occur within one’s life, including work events, family-related events, and other age-related events
  • Wanneersosioloëpraat van loopbaan, verwyshullespesifiekna die volgorde van gebeurebinne ‘n persoon se geskiedenis van werk / when sociologists speak of career, however, they refer specifically to the sequence of events within a person’s work history
die loopbaan the career1
Die loopbaan / the career
  • Sekereberoepevolg ‘n voorspelbarepatroon (die tipieseloopbaan van ‘n dokterbv. universiteit, gemeenskapsdiens, open van eiepraktyk, aftrede) en word’nreëlmatigeloopbaangenoem/ certain careers follow a predictable pattern (the typical career of a physician, for example, might include medical school, residency, the opening of a private practice, and eventual retirement) and is called an orderly career
  • Baiewerkersverkiesomreëlmatigeloopbane met bestendigebevordering in verantwoordelikheid en vergoedingtehê / many people prefer having orderly careers, with steady advancement in responsibility and compensation
  • Die aard van ‘n loopbaanaffekteer ‘n werker se persoonlikheid / the nature of a career appears to affect the worker’s personality
die loopbaan the career2
Die loopbaan / the career
  • Werk wat uitdagend en interessant is stimuleer werkers en hou hulle verstandelik buigbaar en optimisties /Work that remains challenging and interesting stimulates workers and keeps them mentally flexible and optimistic
  • ‘n Uitdaging behels die volgende: verskeidenheid, keuse van hoe en wanneer om dinge te doen en hoe om die opdrag uit te voer, die kompleksiteit van die opdrag, die huidige nuwe geleenthede vir leer en probleemoplossing / important elements of the challenge appear to be having a variety of things to do, some choice about when and how to perform tasks, some complexity to the task, and opportunities for learning and problem solving
  • Byna elke werk, selfs een wat gewoonlik uitdagend en interessant is, bestaan uit roetine en ‘n geswoeg / nearly every job, even one that is normally challenging and interesting, has its aspects of drudgery and routine
die loopbaan the career3
Die loopbaan / the career
  • Ander werke verskaf geen geleentheid om te leer of inisiatief te neem nie / some jobs, however, offer little else, and workers receive no opportunity to learn or show initiative
  • Werkers in sulke beroepe word versigtig, konserwatief en minder buigbaar / workers in such jobs become more cautious, conservative, and less flexible
  • Sosioloë gee ook spesifiek aandag aan burokratiese loopbane, juis omdat meer werke gevind word in burokratiese, hiërargiese organisasies / sociologists have paid particular attention to bureaucratic careers, because more jobs are now located in bureaucratic, hierarchical organisations
  • In ‘n burokrasie het elke werker ‘n spesifieke werk, met spesifieke take en daar is spesifieke reëls wat gevolg moet word / in a bureaucracy each worker has a specific job, with specific tasks and rules need to be followed
die loopbaan the career4
Die loopbaan / the career
  • Alle kommunikasie binne ‘n burokrasie moet deur sekere kanale gaan / all communication in a bureaucracy needs to go through certain channels
  • Baie jong burokrate begin hul werk met entoesiasme en opgewondenheid / many young bureaucrats begin their jobs with enthusiasm and excitement
  • Sommige van hierdie burokrate behou hierdie entoesiasme en word verskeie kere bevorder / some retain this enthusiasm and are promoted several times
  • Daar is meer geskikte werkers as bevorderingsgeleenthede en uiteindelik voel mense vasgevang in hul werk / there are fewer promotion opportunities than eligible workers, and some workers eventually feel stuck in their jobs
  • Werkers word sodoende gedemotiveerd en minder kreatief / workers become demotivated and less creative
die familielewenssiklus the family life cycle
Die familielewenssiklus / the family life cycle
  • Bo en behalwe die lewensiklus van elkemens, is daarook ‘n familiesiklus / besides the life cycle of each individual, there is also a family life cycle
  • Definisie: Die familielewensiklusbeskryf die stadiums van vorming, groei en dood van die modernefamilie / Definition: the family life cycle describes the stages of formation, growth, and dissolution of the nuclear family
  • ‘n Modernegesinbestaangewoonlikuit ‘n paartjie of een of meerouers met kinders en is die meesalgemenefamiliestruktuur / a nuclear family, which consists of a couple or one or more parents with children, is the most common family structure
die gesinslewenssiklus the family life cycle
Die gesinslewenssiklus / the family life cycle
  • Belangrikegebeurtenisse in die gesinslewensiklussluit in die huwelik, geboorte van die eerste kind, geboorte van die laaste kind, laaste kind wat die huisverlaat (‘leënes’), aftrede van werk, en die dood van ‘n eggenoot / important events in the family life cycle include family formation, birth of the first child, birth of the last child, departure of the last child form the home (‘empty nest’), retirement from work, and the death of one spouse
  • Egskeiding en ‘n nuwehuwelik is addisionele stadiums watdalkmagvoorkom in die gesinslewensiklus / divorce and remarriage are additional stages that may occur in the family life cycle
die familie lewenssiklus the family life cycle
Die familielewenssiklus / the family life cycle
  • Drie belangrike punte rakende die gesinslewensiklus / three important points regarding the family life cycle:
    • Eerstens, as gevolg van die variasie in familie lidmaatskap, beskryf die model nie alle familie nie. Kinderlose pare slaan die fases van grootmaak van kinders oor. Sommige families ervaar addisionele stadiums a.g.v. die tydelike of permanente toevoeging van familie lede, soos grootouers wat intrek of ‘n volwasse kind wat terugkom huistoe. / First, because of variations in family membership, the model does not describe all families. Childless couples omit the stages involving child rearing. Some families experience additional stages as the result of the temporary or permanent addition of family members, such as a grandparent who moves in or an adult child who returns home.
die familie lewenssiklus the family life cycle1
Die familielewenssiklus / the family life cycle
  • Tweedens, die tydsberekening van die gesinsiklus is hoogs veranderbaar. ‘n Geskeide ouer wat weer trou en kinders het met die nuwe eggenoot, herhaal weer vroeër stadiums van die gesinsiklus. / second, the timing of the family life cycle is highly variable. A divorced parent who remarries and has children with the new spouse may recycle through earlier stages of the family cycle.
  • Derdens, verskillende sosiale en ekonomiese probleme kom voor binne elke stadium van die siklus. Die huwelik, ouerskap, en die hantering van ‘n leë nes verg alles aanpassing. Elk van hierdie stadiums gaan gepaard met sekere veranderings in die finansiële toestand van die familie / Third, different social and economic problems accompany various stages of the cycle. Getting married, becoming a parent, or facing the empty nest may all engender crises of adjustment. Each of them is also likely to be accompanied by changes in the financial situation of the family
sosialisering en werk socialisation and work1
SOSIALISERING EN WERK / SOCIALISATION AND WORK
  • Definisie: Sosialiseringverwysna die aanleer van norme, rolle en vaardighede / Definition: socialisation refer to the process of learning norms, roles, and skills
  • Die leermeester in hierdieleerproses word die sosialiseringsagentgenoem / the teachers in this learning process are called the socialising agents
  • Onderrig, opleiding, werkplekoriëntasie, en soortgelykereëlingswatspesifiekgebruik word as voorbereidingvir ‘n rol word formelesosialiseringgenoem. Sosialiseringsagente by formelesosialisering is opvoeders en opleidingspersoneel in organisasies en anderplekke / education, training, workplace orientations, and similar arrangements that are specific preparation for a role are called formal socialisation. Socialising agents of formal socialisation are educators and training personnel within organisations and other places
  • Informelesosialisering is ‘n meeromslagtigevoorbereidingvir ‘n rol. Sosialiseringsagente is ouers, portuurgroepe en massa media / informal socialisation is a more diffuse preparation for a role. Socialising agents are parents, peers and mass media
informele sosialisering informal socialising
Informelesosialisering / informal socialising
  • Ouers sosialiseer kinders by die huis / parents socialise children at home
  • Ouers leer vir kinders taal- en basiese lewensvaardighede / parents teach children language and basic living skills
  • Ouers demonstreer ook wat werk behoort te wees, hoe ‘n werker is, hoe jy moet werk, en wat die belangrikheid van werk relatief tot ander aktiwiteite is / parents also model what it means to be a worker, how one goes about working, and the importance of work relative to other activities
  • Ouers het verskillende werke en dus ook verskillende maniere om hul kinders groot te maak / parents have different jobs and therefore also have different ways of raising their children
  • Loopbaan oorerwing vind plaas wanneer kinders dieselfde beroep as hul ouers beoefen / occupational inheritance happens when children take up the same work as their parents’
formele sosialisering formal socialising
Formelesosialisering / formal socialising
  • In skool is die onderwysers en portuurgroepe die sosialiseringsagente / in school, students’ teachers and peers are the socialising agents
  • Skole verskaf opleiding in geletterdheid, berekeninge, kommunikasie, en ander basiese vaardighede wat benodig word in werk / schools provide training in literacy, calculation, communication, and other basic skills useful in jobs
  • Skole en universiteite berei individue voor vir die werk wat hul eendag gaan doen / schools and universities prepare individuals for the work that they are going to do one day
  • Skool berei die jong persoon voor vir ‘n lewe as ‘n werker / schooling prepares the young person for a life as a worker
formele sosialisering formal socialising1
Formelesosialisering / formal socialising
  • Skool skei die werkplek van die huis / school represents the first separation of ‘workplace’ from home
  • By die huis word die kind onvoorwaardelik aanvaar / at home the child is accepted more or less unconditionally
  • Die teenoorgestelde vind in skole plaas waar kinders geevalueer word op grond van hul prestasie / the opposite happens in schools, where children are evaluated according to their performance
  • Die skool neem kinders van ‘n omgewing waar kinders gewaardeer word as individue na ‘n omgewing waar kinders gewaardeer word vir hul produktiwiteit en bevoegdheid / the school takes children from a setting in which they are valued as individuals and prepares them for a setting in which they will be valued for productivity and competence
formele sosialisering formal socialising2
Formelesosialisering / formal socialising
  • In skool leer kinders die belangrikheid van stiptelikheid en reëlmatigheid en om reëls te volg / students learn the importance of punctuality, orderliness, and learning and following rules
  • Bv. kinders leer om hul hande in klas op te steek as hul iets wil sê / for example, students learn to raise their hands and wait for recognition before speaking
  • Kinders leer om mense met gesag te identifiseer en hul korrek en met respek te behandel / students learn to identify and respond appropriately to persons with authority
sosialisering in die werkplek socialising in the workplace
Sosialisering in die werkplek / socialising in the workplace
  • Die werskplek is ‘n belangrike plek waar individue sosialiseer / the workplace is an important socialisation site
  • Toesighouers en medewerkers kan baie werk vir nuwe werkers leer / supervisors and co-workers can teach many jobs to new workers
  • ‘n Belangrike verskil tussen werke is die mate waartoe die werkgewer bereid is om tyd en geld te spandeer aan die opleiding van werkers / an important difference among jobs is the extent to which the employer is willing to invest the time and cost to provide training
  • Sommige organisasies verskaf opleidingsprogramme om werkers op te lei / some organisations provide training programmes to employees
sosialisering in die werkplek socialising in the workplace1
Sosialisering in die werkplek / socialising in the workplace
  • Ander werkgewers neem maar net aan dat werkers sal weet wat belangrik is voordat hul nog aangestel word / other employers assume that the worker will know most of what is important before being hired
  • Vakleerlingskappe en internskappe wat deur organisasies voorsien word is deel van formele sosialisering / apprenticeships and internships that organisations provide form part of formal socialisation
  • Sosialisering einding nie wanneer skool of formele opleiding eindig nie / socialisation does not end when schooling ends, nor does it end even when formal training ends
  • Medewerkers en toesighouers sosialiseer werkers voortdurend / co-workers and supervisors continually socialise workers
sosialisering in die werkplek socialising in the workplace2
Sosialisering in die werkplek / socialising in the workplace
  • Dit berei hulle voor vir bevorderings en werksveranderinge, en dit is ook ‘n manier waarop werkers nuwe rolle leer (bv. Om ‘n toesighouer te wees, om te staak, om werkloos te wees, en om af te tree) /such socialisation prepares workers for eventual promotion or job changes, and it is the way in which they learn new roles (for example, to be a supervisor, to be on strike, to be unemployed, and to retire)
slide29
STADIUMS VAN DIE GEKOMBINEERDE INDIVIDUELE- EN FAMILIE LEWENSIKLUSSE / STAGES OF THE COMBINED INDIVIDUAL AND FAMILY LIFE CYCLES
slide30
.....
  • Skool is die brug tussen die huis en die onpersoonlike wêreld van werk / school is the bridge between home and the more impersonal world of work
  • Jong volwassenes het klomp belangrike lewenstake wat hul moet vervul / young adults face several important and related life tasks
  • Nie almal sal elkeen van hierdie take vervul nie, maar die meeste sal wel / not everyone will perform each of these tasks, but most will
  • Hierdie take sluit in: verlating van die ouerhuis, besluit om aan te gaan met skool/opleiding, besluit om permanente, deeltydse of voltydse werk te soek, besluit om met ‘n familie te begin / these tasks include the following: leaving the parents’ home; deciding whether to continue schooling; deciding whether to seek permanent, full-time employment; and deciding whether to start a new family
  • Norm vir mans is om skool klaar te maak, ‘n werk te kry, en dan te trou / for men the normative order is to finish school, find a job, and then get married
toetrede tot die arbeidsmag entering the labour force
Toetrede tot die arbeidsmag / entering the labour force
  • Beroepskeuses word beïnvloed deur ‘n verskeidenheid van faktore soos bv. persoonlikheid en sosiale konteks / occupational choice is influenced by various factors, including personality and social context
  • Karaktereienskappe speel ‘n groot rol in die werk wat jongmense sal doen en die sukses wat hul daarvan sal maak / these personality characteristics play an important part in the jobs they will eventually take and in the success they will experience
  • Beroepe wissel ook in hul versperring tot toetrede (hoe moeilik dit is om deel te word van die beroep) / occupations vary in their barriers to entry, or how hard it is to become a member of the occupation
  • Dit is bv.makliker om ‘n kassier te word as ‘n dokter / easier to become a cashier than a doctor
toetrede tot die arbeidsmag entering the labour force1
Toetrede tot die arbeidsmag / entering the labour force
  • Dit is altyd moontlik om van beroep te verander, maar jong werkers wat ‘n maklike beroep kies, mag later dalk spyt wees dat hul nie verder gaan swot het of kwalifikasies verwerf het nie / it is always possible to change occupations, but young workers who choose an occupation with low barriers to entry may eventually regret not having acquired the qualifications for entry into a more desirable occupation
  • Selfs binne dieselfde beroepe kan werk verskil agv. die tipe werksplek / even within the same occupation, jobs can differ a great deal because of the workplace
  • Bv. ‘n verpleegster vind dat om in ‘n hospitaal te werk baie anders is as om in ‘n ouetehuis of in ‘n dokter se spreekkamer te werk / a nurse, for example, may find that a job in a hospital is very different from working in a physician’s office or a nursing home
  • Daar is ook verskillende tipes intreevlakke van werk / there are different types of entry-level jobs
  • Daar kan onderskei word tussen doodloop werke en ‘entry-port’ werke / a distinction can be made between dead-end jobs and entry-port jobs
toetrede tot die arbeidsmag entering the labour force2
Toetrede tot die arbeidsmag / entering the labour force
  • Doodloop werke benodig min vaardighede, daar is gewoonlik ‘n hoë omset en min geleenthede vir bevordering, salarisverhoging en meer verantwoordelikheid. Hierdie tipe werk betaal die minimum lone en verskaf min sekuriteit en byvoordele / dead-end jobs require relatively little skill, often have a high turnover, and rarely, if ever, lead to promotions, higher pay, or more responsibility. they often pay only the minimum wage and provide little security and few fringe benefits
  • Byvoordele verwys na nie-loon vergoeding en byvoordele vir werkers bv. Pensioen, siekteverlof, betaalde verlof, mediese fonds, versekering ens. / fringe benefits refer to the non-wage compensation and perquisites of workers such as pension coverage, health and other forms of insurance, sick leave, and paid vacation
toetrede tot die arbeidsmag entering the labour force3
Toetrede tot die arbeidsmag / entering the labour force
  • ‘n Byvoordeel kan ook bv. wees dat ‘n persoon afslag kry as hy die produkte van die maatskappy koop /an example of a perquisite would be an employee discount on purchases of the company’s product
  • Baie doodloop werke kan deeltyds of seisoenaal wees / many dead-end jobs are part-time or seasonal
  • Omdat doodloop werke so onaantreklik is verwag die werkgewer min voorbereiding van die werker en min opleiding aan werkers word verskaf / because of the relative unattractiveness of the dead-end job, the employer expects little preparation from the workers, and provide little on-the-job training
toetrede tot die arbeidsmag entering the labour force4
Toetrede tot die arbeidsmag / entering the labour force
  • Voordele van doodloop werke vir die werkgewer / advantages of dead-end jobs for the employer:
    • Enige iemand kan die werk doen / anyone can do the work
    • Dit is maklik om mense te werf vir die werk, juis omdat min vaardighede benodig word / it is relatively easy to recruit someone to do the job, because few skills are needed
    • Werwing en keuring van nuwe werknemers vat min tyd / recruiting and interviewing prospective workers take little time
    • Die werkgewer kan moeilike of ongedisiplineerde werkers afdank en nuwe werkers aanstel / the employer can fire difficult or undisciplined workers and hire new workers
    • As besigheid goed is kan die werkgewer nog sulke werke skep / if business is good, the employer can easily create more such jobs
    • Wanneer besigheid swak is kan die werkgewer die werknemers ontslaan of die werkskedule verminder / when business lags, the employer can lay off workers or reduce their work schedules
toetrede tot die arbeidsmag entering the labour force5
Toetrede tot die arbeidsmag / entering the labour force
  • Nadele van doodloop werke vir die werkgewer / disadvantages of dead-end jobs for the employer:
    • Om werkers te vervang is maklik as arbeid volop beskikbaar is, maar dit is moeilik as arbeid skaars is / replacing workers is easy if labour is plentiful, but difficult and costly when labour is scarce
    • Omdat die beste werkers beter werke verkies, het die poel van beskikbare werkers min vaardighede en ondervinding / because the best workers prefer better jobs, the pool of available workers is likely to have relatively little experience and training
    • Hoë omset kan produksie versteur / high turnover can disrupt production
    • In diensindustrieë kan ‘n ‘uncommitted’ werknemer die kliënte irriteer en kan kliënte besluit om hul besigheid na ‘n ander plek te neem / in service industries an uncommitted worker can irritate clients and customers and cause them to take their business elsewhere
toetrede tot die arbeidsmag entering the labour force6
Toetrede tot die arbeidsmag / entering the labour force
  • Voordele van doodloop werke vir die werker / advantages of dead-end jobs for the worker:
    • Deeltydse en vakansiewerke voorsien aan jong werkers hulle eerste werkservaring / part-time or summer jobs provide the first working experience for many young people
    • Alhoewel hul geen formele opleiding ontvang nie, leer jong werkers tog algemene lesse van die wêreld van werk / although the job may offer no formal training, working itself is new to them, and so they learn some general lessons about the world of work
    • Die werkgewer van ‘n jong persoon se eerste werk is gewoonlik bereid om verwysings te verskaf aan ander werkgewers / the employer on a young person’s first job is often willing to provide references to other employers
    • Deeltydse werk is aantreklik vir studente en jong ouers wat nie voltyds kan werk nie / part-time jobs are attractive to students and young parents who cannot work full time
toetrede tot die arbeidsmag entering the labour force7
Toetrede tot die arbeidsmag / entering the labour force
  • Nadele van doodloop werk vir die werknemer / disadvantages of dead-end jobs for the employee:
    • Doodloop werk is skadelik vir die werker wat nie instaat is om beter werk te kry nie / dead-end jobs are detrimental to the worker who is never able to find better employment
    • Sule werkers verander dikwels van werk, en is opsoek na beter betaling en beter werkskondisies, net om weer te vind dat die werk ook ‘n doodloop is / such a worker may change jobs frequently, looking for better pay or working conditions, only to find that the job is once again a dead end
    • Werkers wat heeltyd binne doodloop werke is leer nooit nuwe vaardighede nie en kry min byvoordele / workers who hold only dead-end jobs learn few new skills and have few incentives to improve their work habits
entry port werke entry port jobs
‘entry-port’ werke / entry-port jobs
  • Sommige intreevlak-werk word ‘entry ports’ genoem omdat hulle aan die werker die moontlikheid van opleiding, groter verantwoordelikheid, beter betaling, byvoordele en bevorderings bied / some entry-level jobs are called entry ports because they offer the worker the possibility for training, greater responsibility, improved pay and fringe benefits, and promotions
  • ‘entry ports’ word gewoonlik gevul deur formele en gevestigde keuringsprosedures en kriteria / entry ports are usually filled through formalised recruitment procedures and well-established criteria
  • Werwing, keuring en seleksie word versigtig gedoen om te verseker dat die beste werkers aangestel word / recruiting and screening are done carefully to ensure that the best available workers are hired
entry port werke entry port jobs1
‘entry-port’ werke / entry-port jobs
  • Die werkgewer gee ook aandag aan vorige werkservaring, insluitende deeltydse werk, vakansiewerk en gemeenskapsdiens / the employer may pay particular attention to previous work experience, including part-time jobs, summer jobs, and volunteer work
  • Werkgewers gee ook spesifiek aandag aan opleiding, insluitende grade verwerf, die kwaliteite van die universiteit, en enige addisionele sertifikate of lisensies / the employer pay particular attention to education, including degrees earned, the quality of the school, and any additional certificates or licences held
entry port werke entry port jobs2
‘entry-port’ werke / entry-port jobs
  • Kenmerke van ‘entry ports’ / characteristics of entry ports:
    • ‘entry ports’ vereis gewoonlik ‘n oriëntasie tydperk om die nuwe werker bekend te maak met die nuwe organisasie se beleide en regulasies / entry ports usually require at least an orientation period to introduce the new worker to company policies and regulations
    • Die mees onderskeidende kenmerk van ‘n ‘entry port’ is dat werkers die geleentheid het om te kompeteer vir bevordering binne die organisasie / the most distinguishing characteristic of an entry port is that it makes the worker eligible to compete for advancement within the firm
toetrede tot die arbeidsmag entering the labour force8
Toetrede tot die arbeidsmag / entering the labour force
  • Daar is heel moontlik ook ‘n goed gedefinieërde posbeskrywing / there is likely to be a well-defined job description
  • ‘entry ports’ het gewoonlik ‘n proeftydperk waartydens ‘n nuwe werker dopgehou en geevalueer word / many entry ports have a probationary period during which a new worker is carefully watched and evaluated
  • Die ‘entry ports’ betaal gewoonlik meer as die minimum loon en verskaf sommige byvoordele / the entry port usually pays more than the minimum wage and provides some fringe benefits
rolkonflik en roloorlading role conflict and role overload
Rolkonflik en roloorlading / role conflict and role overload
  • (Very important...)
  • Veelvuldige lewensrolle kan ‘n bron van satisfaksie wees in ‘n persoon se lewe / multiple life roles can be a source of satisfaction
  • Die baie rolle van die jong volwassenes kan lei tot roloorlading / taking on the many new roles of young adulthood, however, may create role overload
  • Spanning word veroorsaak want daar is te veel wat die persoon op ‘n spesifieke tydstip wil doen / tension is causes when a person tries to do too much at once
  • Rolkonflik: dit vind plaas wanneer ‘n persoon twee rolle moet vervul en daar teenstellende verwagtinge is oor dit wat gedoen moet word op dieselfde tydstip/ role conflict: when someone occupies two roles with contradictory expectations of what one should be doing at a certain time
  • Vb. van rolkonflik: daar word van werker verwag om betyds by die werk te wees en om na ‘n siek kind om te sien / for example, a worker may be expected both to be at work on time and to be caring for her sick child
rolkonflik en roloorlading role conflict and role overload1
Rolkonflik en roloorlading / role conflict and role overload
  • Werksverwante reis, veranderende werkskofte, kindersorg en onvoorsiene noodgevalle by die werk of huis is belangrike oorsake van rolkonflik / job-related travel, changing work shifts, child care, and unexpected emergencies either at home or work are important sources of role conflict
  • Rolkonflik kan opgelos word deur prioriteite te stel binne die werk en huis / the resolution of role conflict requires setting priorities within both the workplace and the home
werkre lings tussen paartjies work arrangements among couples
Werkreëlingstussenpaartjies / work arrangements among couples
  • Deesdae het beide die man en vrou beroepe en verdien albei ‘n salaris / nowadays both the husband and wife have careers and both get paid for their work
  • Toetrede van vrouens tot die arbeidsmag vermeerder / women’s labour force participation has risen
  • Vir paartjies waar albei die persone werk, is tyd, ligging, en prioriteit baie belangrik / for couples in which both partners work, issues of time, location, and priorities are very important
  • Die tydfaktor sluit in: die moontlikheid van een of beide van die persone om nagskof, oortyd, naweke en vakansies te werk / the time issues can include: the possibility that one or both of the partners is expected to work overtime, at nights, or on weekends or holidays
werkre lings tussen paartjies work arrangements among couples1
Werkreëlingstussenpaartjies / work arrangements among couples
  • Die afstand van die werk na die huis en die beskikbaarheid van vervoer is faktor wat in ag geneem moet word wanneer daar na ligging gekyk word / the proximity of the home to work and the availability of transportation are issues involving location
  • ‘n Beperkte begroting om te reis na en van werk kan een eggenoot dwing om werk te soek nader aan die huis / a limited budget for commuting may force one spouse to look for work near home
  • As daar kinders is kan een van die ouers dit dalk oorweeg om werk te soek naby die skool of dagmoeder / if there are children, one parent may also consider working near the children’s school or caregiver
  • Daar kom ook reisigershuwelike voor. Dit is wanneer daar nie werk beskikbaar is vir biede die eggenote binne dieselfde geografiese gebied nie. Die afstand tussen die werk en die huis is so groot dat dit nie altyd moontlik is vir een van die eggenote om huistoe te kom nie / commuter marriages arise when suitable jobs in the same geographic area are unavailable to both spouses. In commuter marriages the distances are so far that returning home is not possible
die koms van kinders the arrival of children
Die koms van kinders / the arrival of children
  • Meeste paartjies sal ouers word en sal kinders in die huis hê vir ‘n groot deel van hul getroude lewe / most couples will become parents and will have children at home for part of their marries life
  • Vandag is dit nogsteeds ‘n probleem vir ouers om kindersorg en werk te kombineer / the issue of combining child care with work will arise for most adults
  • Vandag word dit anders hanteer as in die verlede / it is being handled differently today than it was in the past
  • Baie egpare van vandag het minder kinders en wag langer om kinders te kry / besides having fewer children, many women are also waiting longer to bear their first child
tuisteskeppers en tuisproduksie as loopbaan homemakers and home production as career
Tuisteskeppers en tuisproduksie as loopbaan / homemakers and home production as career
  • Baie volwassenes, meestal vrouens, werk nie vir salarisse nie, maar is betrokke by tuisproduksie / substantial numbers of adults, most of them women, do not work for pay but remain engaged in home production
  • Tuisproduksie verwys na die nie-markverwante produksie van goedere en dienste gewoonlik vir die familie, maar somtyds vir skole, kerke en ander groepe / home production refers to the non-market production of goods and services, usually for the family but occasionally on a volunteer basis for schools, churches, or other groups
  • Werkers wat betrokke is by tuisproduksie word tuisteskeppers genoem / workers that are involved in home production are called homemakers
  • Tuisproduksie sluit in kook, naaldwerk, skoonmaak, wasgoed was, rondry van kinders, inkopies ens. / home production include cooking, needlework, cleaing, chauffeuring of children, laundry, groceries etc.
tuisteskeppers en tuisproduksie as loopbaan homemakers and home production as career1
Tuisteskeppers en tuisproduksie as loopbaan / homemakers and home production as career
  • Voordele van tuisproduksie / advantages of home production:
    • Verskaf aan werkers die geleentheid om hulle eie werk te skeduleer en hulle eie prioriteite te stel / home production offers workers the opportunity to schedule their own work and set their own priorities
    • Baie ouers heg waarde daaraan om by die huis te bly saam hul kinders/ many parents highly value staying at home with their children
  • Nadele van tuisproduksie / disadvantages of home production:
    • Jy word finansieël beperk / financial limitations
    • Geen pensioen of versekering / no pension or insurance
    • Jy is ekonomies afhanklik van ander / you are economically dependent on another person
    • Sosiale waardevermindering (tuiswerk word nie gesien as ‘n ‘regte’ werk nie) / social devaluation (housework is not considered a ‘real’ job)
die sandwich generasie the sandwich generation
Die ‘sandwich’ generasie / the sandwich generation
  • Die ‘sandwich’ generasie staan bekend as middeljarige werkers wat sorg vir hul groeiende families en selfs bejaarde ouers. Dit veroorsaak stress omdat die persoon moet omsien na jong en ou afhanklikes / middle-aged workers are likely to feel some stress from their ‘sandwich generation’ position, with their own growing families relying on them, and often their aging parents as well. In part this stress comes from the economic necessity of providing for young and old dependents.
  • Soos wat kinders ook begin ouers word, word die koste daaraan verbonde om na hul om te sien ook meer / as children become older, the expense of caring for them also increases
  • Tieners eet meer as klein kindertjies, vervoer, klere, onderrigskoste en ontspanningsaktiwiteite van tieners is ook duurder / teenagers eat more than younger children; in addition, providing cloting, transportation, educational expenses, and leisure expenditure for older children is more expensive
die sandwich generasie the sandwich generation1
Die ‘sandwich’ generasie / the sandwich generation
  • ‘income squeeze’ kan ook voorkom: dit is wanneer dit familie se uitgawes vermeerder, maar daar is nie ‘n verhoging van jaarlikse inkomste nie / workers may experience an income squeeze which means that just as the expenses of their families increase, the increments in their annual income stop
  • Daar is verskeie maniere hoe jy ‘n persoon dit kan hanteer: jy kan geld leen of ‘n tweede werk kry /there are various ways to deal with this: a person can borrow money or take on a second job
le nes en aftrede the empty nest and retirement
Leënes en aftrede / the ‘empty nest’ and retirement
  • Die leë nes verwys na die periode nadat die laaste kind die ouerhuis verlaat het / the empty nest refers to the period after the last child has left the parental home
  • Gevolge van leë nes / consequences of empty nest:
    • Dit is ‘n hartseer tyd vir ouers / may be a time of sadness for the parents
    • Dit is ook ‘n periode waar tuisteskeppers voel asof hulle ‘werkloos’ is / homemakers may in particular feel ‘unemployed’
    • Dit is ook ‘n tydperk wanneer tuisteskeppers meer gemeenskapsdiens doen of die arbeidsmag betree / this is often a period in which homemakers intensify their volunteer work in the community, or in some cases enter the paid labour force
    • Verhoogde belang in werk / heightened interest in work
le nes en aftrede the empty nest and retirement1
Leënes en aftrede / the ‘empty nest’ and retirement
  • Daar is sekere beroepe waar ‘n persoon op ‘n spesifieke ouderdom moet aftree bv. vlieënier / there are a few occupations where a person must retire at a certain age for example, airline pilots
  • Baie mense kies om aan te hou werk a.g.v. finansiële redes / many people decide not to retire because of financial reasons
  • Jy kan aftree a.g.v siekte of gestremdheid / you can retire because of illness or disability
  • Aftrede is belangrik vir die aanstelling van jonger werkers, wie die nuuste tegnologiese vaardighede het /retirement is important because younger workers are more likely to have acquired the latest technological skills
  • Dit is nie altyd maklik vir mense om af te tree nie / it is not always easy for persons to retire
verbetering van die integrering van werk en familie improving the integration of work and family
Verbetering van die integrering van werk en familie / improving the integration of work and family
herverpakking van werk repackaging work
Herverpakking van werk / repackaging work
  • Daar is drie maniere vir die herverpakking van werk / there are three ways for repackaging work:
    • Fleksietyd / flexitime
    • Blokskedulering / blockscheduling
    • Deel van werk / work sharing
  • Daar word gebruik gemaak van fleksietyd. Fleksietyd stel persone in staat om sy eie werksure te kies, binne perke natuurlik / flexitime allows workers to set their own hours, within some limits
  • Vb.werkgewers dring daarop aan dat almal op die perseel daar moet wees tussen 10uur die oggend en 2uur die middag / for example, employers may insist that all employees be on the premises between ten in the morning and two in the afternoon
herverpakking van werk repackaging work1
Herverpakking van werk / repackaging work
  • Voordele van fleksietyd / advantages of flexitime:
    • Dit maak dit vir ouers met jong kinders makliker (kan die kinders gaan optel en aflaai by skool) / it allows the parents of small children to help get them off to school in the morning or to meet them in the afternoon
    • Fleksietyd stel persone in staat om te werk gedurende hul mees produktiewe ure / flexitime also allows workers to work during their most productive hours
    • Wanneer klomp werkers in die dorp fleksietyd werk, verminder dit verkeer tydens spitstye en verminder sodoende ook werkstres / when a number of employers in a city use flexitime, there may be less traffic congestion during the rush hour, alleviating one more source of work stress
herverpakking van werk repackaging work2
Herverpakking van werk / repackaging work
  • Blokskedulering: wanneer die tradisionele 40 uur week saamgesit word op ‘n nie-tradisionele manier bv. Brandweermanne werk vandag en het dan die volgende dag af/ block scheduling: putting together the traditional forty-hour work week in nontraditional ways for example, firefighters often have a ‘one-day-on-one-day-off’ rule.
  • Deel van werk: ‘n voltydse werk word gedeel in twee deeltydse werke. Hierdie twee werke kan gedeel word deur ‘n man en vrou of deur 2 vreemde werkers / work sharing: one full-time job is partitioned into two half-time jobs. These two jobs may be shared by a husband and wife, or by two unrelated workers
herverpakking van werk repackaging work3
Herverpakking van werk / repackaging work
  • Voordele van deel van werk / advantages of work sharing :
    • Stelouers in staatom self tesorgvirhulkinders / work sharing may allow parents to care for their children themselves
    • Bied ‘n werksgeleentheidaanpersonewatnie ‘n voltydsewerkkankrynie / work sharing makes a new part-time job available
  • Nadele van deel van werk / disadvantages of work sharing:
    • Verminderdeinkomste / reduced income
    • Geenbyvoordele / no fringe benefits
    • Alhoewel die besigheidspaaromdatgeenbyvoordelegegee word nie, is die kosteverbondeaanboekhoumeer / the company saves on fringe benefits, although there are additional bookkeeping costs
familieverwante byvoordele family related fringe benefits
Familieverwantebyvoordele / family-related fringe benefits
  • Baie groot organisasies maak gebruik van die kafeteria benadering – dit stel werkers in staat om te kies tussen verskillende byvoordele wat hul lewenstyl die beste sal pas / many large employers are considering the cafeteria approach to benefits that would give workers the ability to choose among different benefits that best serve their family needs
  • By die kafeteria benadering word die werker ‘n spesifieke bedrag gegee en van die werker word daar dan gevra om te kies tussen die verskillende alternatiewe wat beskikbaar is / in the cafeteria approach the worker is given a dollar amount of benefits and asked to choose among the available alternatives
alternatiewe siklusse alternative cycles
Alternatiewesiklusse / alternative cycles
  • In die opeenvolgende lewensplan word werk opeenvolgend georganiseer in ‘n tydperk van onderrig, ‘n tydperk van werk, en dan ‘n tydperk van ontspanning (aftrede) / in the sequential life plan, human work is organised sequentially into a period of education, a period of work, and then a period of leisure (retirement)
  • Daar kom wel twee probleme voor by die tydperke van onderrig en ontspanning (aftrede) / however, there are problems in at least two areas: education and leisure
alternatiewe siklusse alternative cycles1
Alternatiewesiklusse / alternative cycles
  • Onderrig: daar is ‘n behoefte vir werkers om op datum te bly met hul onderrig en opleiding. Dit word gedoen deur bv. voortdurend te studeer. Dit sal goedkoper wees as werkgewers sulke geleenthede beskikbaar stel en die kennis en ervaring van ouer werkers behou as om voortdurend nuwe werkers aan te stel/ education: there is a need for workers in many fields to update their education periodically through, for example, continuing study. It is probably cheaper in the long run for employers to make such opportunities available rather than constantly hiring new workers (and losing the expertise of older workers)
  • Ontspanning: Wanneer ontspanningstyd uitgestel word tot aftrede, kry baie werkers nie die geleentheid om dit geniet nie agv. finansies of siekte / postponing leisure to the retirement days means that many workers will never enjoy it, because of either failing health or low income