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Life Science Mr. Galloway. Chapters 15-16 Human Biology & Health Bones, Muscles, Skin, Food, Digestion. Recommended Websites: Body Organization & Homeostasis Levels of Organization:. Non-living atoms and molecules . . .

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Life Science

Mr. Galloway

Chapters 15-16

Human Biology & Health

Bones, Muscles, Skin, Food, Digestion

Recommended Websites:

body organization homeostasis levels of organization
Body Organization & HomeostasisLevels of Organization:
  • Non-living atoms and molecules . . .
  • Cells (basic unit of life – remember “Biogenesis”)
  • Tissues (are groups of similar cells; four types)
  • Organs (are composed of different tissue types)
  • Organ Systems (groups of organs working together)- 11 organ systems
  • Homeostasis (process to maintain internal stability)
  • Stress (= your reaction to difficult events)- Stress can upset homeostasis of the body
animal cells
Animal Cells
  • Law of “Biogenesis” = life only from life
    • So our living God is the source of living cells.
  • Cell Membrane = outside cell boundary
  • Nucleus = control center (computer of the cell)
  • Cytoplasm = area between the membrane and the nucleus.
  • A tissue is a group of similar cells that perform the same function.
  • Human bodies have four basic tissue types:
    • Muscle Tissues – contract to move the body parts
    • Nerve Tissues – communicate between body & brain
    • Connective Tissue – supports body (skeleton, fat, etc.)
    • Epithelial Tissue – covers the body inside and outside
      • Skin
      • Lining of your digestive tract, etc……….
organs and organ systems
Organs and Organ Systems
  • Organ = a structure composed of different kinds of tissues, which performs a specific job.
    • Examples (heart, stomach, lungs, etc. ….)
  • Organ System = group of organs working together to perform a major function.
    • Eleven organ systems:- Skeletal (support, protection) - Muscular (movement)- Skin (protects, regulates) - Digestive (food prep)

- Circulatory (blood flow) - Respiratory (breathing)- Excretory (waste removal) - Immune (disease) - Nervous (feel, think, act) - Endocrine (hormones) - Reproductive (offspring)

skeletal system
Skeletal System
  • 206 human bones
  • Five Functions:
    • Shape/Support
    • Movement
    • Protection of organs
    • Production of blood
    • Storage of materials
  • Vertebrae = 26back bones
bones both living and strong
Bones – both living and strong
  • Bone Strength - stronger than concrete or granite, yet lighter than both
  • Bone Growth – bone cells grow and heal
  • Bone Structure – outer membrane, compact bone, spongy bone, marrow, nerves, & blood vessels
    • Marrow Types – Two types - Red makes blood cells * Child has red marrow in most of the bones * Teens only at femur ends, skull, hips, sternum) - Yellow stores fat cells for energy reserves
Bone Formation –infants have flexible cartilage, which becomes bone, as calcium makes it stiffer.Adults have cartilage in ears, nose, etc.
  • Joints = where two bones join. (Ligaments hold bones together)
    • Immovable Joints = skull joints, and rib/sternum
    • Movable = many types (hinge, pivot, gliding, ball/socket)
  • Bone Care = good diet and exercise
    • Exercise actually stimulates bone growth
    • Osteoporosis is a disease caused by a loss of the mineral calcium. The bones become soft and brittle.
  • Ball & Socket
  • Hinge
  • Pivot
  • Gliding


muscular system 600 muscles
Muscular System – 600 muscles
  • Muscle Action – only contract to move the body
    • Involuntary – automatic and not consciously controlled(heart, breathing, digestion, etc.)
    • Voluntary – under your control (arms, legs, mouth, etc.)
  • Types of Muscle (Three)
    • Skeletal – (voluntary) striated & attached to bone by a tendon
    • Smooth – (involuntary) inside organs, blood vessels
    • Cardiac – (involuntary) striated, yet does not get tired
skin a tough covering
Skin – A Tough Covering
  • Prevents loss of water
  • Protects from injury and infection
  • Regulates body temperature (sweat)
  • Eliminates wastes (sweat)
  • Gathers information from environment (senses)
  • Produces vitamin D
structure of the skin
Structure of the Skin
  • Epidermis = outermost layer
    • Cells on the surface are dead (a thick layer)
    • This dead layer is the primary protection layer
    • Deeper into the epidermis the cells are alive
    • Some produce “melanin” (a pigment – tan)
  • Dermis = layer below epidermis & above fat.
    • Pores – openings for sweat from sweat glands
    • Follicles – structures that grow hair
    • Hair that you see is dead cells
    • Oil is produced to waterproof the hair and moisten skin
caring for your skin
Caring for Your Skin
  • Eat right
  • Drink enough water
  • Limit exposure to the sun
    • Too much sun causes wrinkles and cancer
    • Always use sun screen!!!
  • Keep your skin clean and dry
    • Wet and dirty skin lets bacteria and fungi grow
    • This helps reduce acne, but acne is NOT caused by dirty skin.
food and digestion
Food and Digestion
  • Calorie = amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius.
  • Food and Energy
    • Nutrients = substances in food that provide raw materials and energy the body needs
    • Six Nutrient Types:
      • Carbohydrates
      • Fats
      • Proteins
      • Vitamins
      • Minerals
      • Water
  • Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.
  • One gram of carbs provides four Calories
  • Two groups of carbohydrates
    • Simple = sugars like glucose
    • Complex = many molecules of sugars linked together in a chain, like starches, fiber.
      • Starches can be broken down to provide energy
      • Fiber cannot be broken down and is not a nutrient, but helps the digestive system function
  • Fats are high-energy nutrients made of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.
  • Two Classes of Fats:
    • Unsaturated Fats = liquid at room temp., like oils.
    • Saturated Fats = solid at room temp., animal fat.
      • Cholesterol is a waxy, fatlike substance found only in animal products.
      • Your liver makes all the cholesterol we need, so getting extra from food is not needed and can be harmful.
  • Proteins are nutrients that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
    • Amino Acids together make up protein molecules.
    • There are about 20 amino acids.
    • Thousands of proteins can be made by arranging the chains of amino acids differently.
  • Complete and Incomplete Proteins
    • Complete = proteins from animal sources like meat & eggs, which contain all the essential amino acids we need.
    • Incomplete = proteins from plant sources, which do not have all the amino acids we need.
  • Vitamins act as helper molecules in many chemical reactions.
  • Scurvy = disease caused by a lack of vitamin C, and was a terrible problem for sailors in the 1700s, until a Scottish doctor (James Lind) discovered it was a diet problem.
  • Small amounts of many different kinds of vitamins are needed by your body.
  • Two Types of Vitamins
    • Fat-soluble (A, D, E, K)
    • Water-soluble Vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, Biotin, Folic Acid, Pantothenic Acid, C)
Be able to identify on a similar diagram, all of these parts except the gallbladder and the pancreas.
beginning of digestion
Beginning of Digestion
  • Digestion = process of breaking down food into small nutrient molecules.
  • Absorption = process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of the intestines into the blood.
  • Elimination = process of removing waste byproducts from the body.
the mouth
The Mouth
  • Teeth – incisors, canines, premolars, molars
  • Saliva – watery solution for mechanical and chemical breakdown of food
    • Mechanical Digestion = teeth cut and crush food, saliva mixes and moistens food
    • Chemical Digestion = breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones
      • Starch to sugars, or proteins into amino acids
      • Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions.(= catalysts in living organisms)
the esophagus 10 seconds
The Esophagus – 10 seconds
  • Esophagus = a muscular tube connecting the mouth to the stomach
  • Epiglottis = a flap of tissue that seals off you windpipe, so food won’t enter it.
  • Mucus = thick slippery substance lining the esophagus, which makes food slide down easier.
  • Peristalsis = involuntary waves of muscle contraction that squeeze the food down the esophagus
the stomach
The Stomach
  • Stomach = a J-shaped muscular pouch which holds all the food you swallow. Average capacity = 2 liters.
  • Mechanical and Chemical ways to break food down.
    • Food stays in the stomach until food is in liquid form.
    • Mechanically it squeezes and mashes and mixes food.
    • Chemically it adds hydrochloric acid and pepsin (enzyme).
      • The acid helps the enzyme reaction work better and kills germs
      • Mucus lining the stomach wall protects you from the acid.
final digestion and absorption
Final Digestion and Absorption
  • Small Intestine is about 6 meters (18 feet long)
    • Most of chemical digestion and absorption occurs here
    • Lots of enzymes and secretions coming from three organs:
      • Small Intestine wall
      • Liver – largest and heaviest of internal organs
        • Bile is not an enzyme, so it works like soap to break down fats.
        • Gallbladder is a storage organ for the bile
      • Pancreas – produces many enzymes for food breakdown.
    • Absorption in the small intestine
      • Villi = (villus is singular) are millions of tiny finger-shaped structures lining the intestine to increase surface area.
the large intestine
The Large Intestine
  • It is the last section of the digestive system.
  • About 1.5 meters (4 feet) long
  • Water is absorbed into the blood stream.
  • The left over material is readied for elimination.
  • Rectum = end section of the large intestine, where waste is compressed into a solid form.
  • Anus = a muscular opening at the end of the rectum.