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Hair Coloring

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  1. Hair Coloring

  2. Learning Objectives 1. List the reasons people color their hair. 2. Explain how the hair’s porosity affects haircolor. 3. Understand the types of melanin found in hair. 4. Define and identify levels and their role in formulating haircolor. 5. Identify primary, secondary, and tertiary colors. 6. Know what role tone and intensity play in haircolor. 7. List and describe the categories of haircolor. 8. Explain the role of hydrogen peroxide in a haircolor formula. 9. Explain the action of hair lighteners. 10. List the four key questions to ask when formulating a haircolor

  3. Learning Objectives 11. Understand why a patch test is useful in haircoloring. 12. Define what a preliminary strand test is and why it is used. 13. List and describe the procedure for a virgin single-process color service. 14. Understand the two processes involved in double-proceshaircoloring. 15. Describe the various forms of hair lightener. 16. Understand the purpose and use of toners. 17. Name and describe the three most commonly used methods for highlightening. 18. Know how to properly cover gray hair. 19. Know the rules of color correction. 20. Know the safety precautions to follow during the haircolor process.

  4. Haircolor Services

  5. Haircolor Services • Did you know that ­­­­Qualified hair colorists make more money and are in more demand than any other specialists in the field of cosmetology? It’s also been determined that Eightout of ten professionals claim that they are least comfortable with haircoloring of all the services they provide. Hopefully, as we study the unit on hair color, we will be able to overcome the fears of haircoloring and be able to face these services with Enthusiasm and Excitement over the money to be earned.

  6. Haircolor Services • HaircolorServices • Why people color their hair: • To Coveror Blend grey hair. • To enhance Natural Pigment. • To create a Fashionor statement of Self Expression. • To correct Unwanted Tones. • To accentuate a Haircut .

  7. Hair Facts

  8. Hair Facts • Hair Facts: • Hair Structure • The Cuticle is the outermost layer of hair, it protects the interior Cortex and contributes to 20 percent of overall strength of hair. • The Cortexis the middle layer that gives hair strength and Elasticity; it contributes about 80percent to the overall strength of hair. • It contains Natural Pigments called • Melanin.

  9. Hair Facts • Melanin granules are scattered between cortex cells like chips in a chocolate chip cookie.

  10. Hair Facts • The Medulla is the innermost layer; it is sometimes Absent from hair and plays a very Little role in Haircoloring.

  11. Hair Facts • Hair Texture • This is determined by the individual hair strandDiameter. • Also referred to as Diameter. • Defined as Fine , Medium , And Coarse. • Artificial haircolor responds Differentlyto each of these textures of hair.

  12. Hair Facts • Hair Density • The number of hairs Per Square Inchon the head. • Sometimes referred to this as how Thick hair is. • Density will affect haircolorApplicationto ensure proper and Complete coverage.

  13. Hair Facts • Hair Porosity • This is the ability of the hair to Absorb and Retain Moisture. • Porous hair accepts haircolorFaster . • Porosity can also affect the Intensityof the color deposit.

  14. Hair Facts • When working with Resistant Hairporosity is Lowand The cuticle is Closed. • Hair is resistant and requires a Longerprocessing time. • With hair that has Average porosity the cuticle is Slightlyraised and processes in an average amount of time. • When the cuticle is Lifted, hair is Overlyporousor has high porosity. • Overly porous hair takes color Unevenlyand color tends to Processmore quickly as well.

  15. Hair Facts • To Perform a Porosity Test: • Take a strand of several hairs from four different areas of the head: the front hairline, the temple, the crown, and the nape. Hold the strands securely with one hand and slide the thumb and forefinger of the other hand from the ends to the scalp.

  16. Natural Haircolor

  17. Natural Haircolor • Melanin in the Cortex • Eumelanin is the melanin that gives Brownand Black color to hair. • Pheomelaningives blonde and red color to hair. • Mixedmelanin is a mixture of both Eumelaninand Pheomelanin.

  18. Natural Hair Color • Contributing Pigment • Is also known as Undertones . • It is the varying degrees of Warmth exposed during a color process. • The foundation of haircoloring is based on Changing this pigment with haircolor to create new pigment.

  19. The Level System

  20. The Level System • The Level System • A level is the unit of measurement used to identify the Lightnessor Depthof a color. • Colorists use the level system to Identifythe lightness or darkness of a hair color. • Levels are arranged on a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 being the Darkestand 10 being the Lightest.

  21. The Level System • To identify natural level: • 1. Take ½-inch (1.25 cm) square section in the crown area and hold up from the scalp, allowinglightto pass through. • 2. Use swatches and find a against the scalp. • 3. Move the swatch from the scalp area along the hair strand. • 4. Determine the natural hair color level.

  22. Color Theory

  23. Color Theory • Primary Colors • These are pure colors that cannot be achieved from Mixingany other colors together. • They are Red , Blue, and Yellow. • All other colors on the spectrum are Achievedby mixing together these three colors. • When All Three Primarycolors are present in equal proportions the resulting color is Black.

  24. Color Theory • Secondary Colors • These are achieved by mixing together Equal Proportions of any two primaries.

  25. Color Theory • Tertiary Colors • These are achieved by mixing together in equal proportions of a primary color and it’s neighboring Secondary Color.

  26. Color Theory • The Law of Color • On the Color Wheel same combination rendersthe same Result. • Equal parts of red and blue always make Violet . • Equal parts of Blueand Yellow always make green. • Equal parts of yellow and red always make Orange.

  27. Color Theory • Complimentary Colors • Complimentary colors are positioned Opposite each other on the color wheel. • When mixed together in Equalproportions the will Neutralizeeach other to a neutral brown. • The complimentary colors are: • Blue and Orange • Yellow and Violet • Red and Green

  28. Color Theory • Tonality • Tonality refers to the Warmth or Coolness of a color.

  29. Color Theory • Warm Tones • Warm colors are any colors that containRed or Yellow . • Warm tones make haircolor appear to be Lighter and Brighterto the eye. • These colors POP or stand out.

  30. Color Theory • Cool Tones • Cool colors are any colors that contain Blue . • Cool tones make haircolor appear to be Darkerand recede from the surface. • These colors Blend into the Background.

  31. Color Theory • Neutral Tones • Neutral tones contain Equal Partsof all of the Primary Colors.

  32. Haircolor Types

  33. Haircolor Types • TEMPORARY COLOR • Temporary haircolor produces a Physical Change in the hair and does not alter it chemically. • It uses Directdye molecules to coat the hair shaft only. • Temporary haircolor lasts for One Shampoo. • Different varieties include: • Rinses • Spray on Color • Hair Mascara • Color Enhancing Shamoos

  34. Haircolor Types • SEMIPERMANENT HAIRCOLOR • Semipermanenthaircolor uses Direct_ dye molecules that are diffused from the hair during shampooing • Formulated to last for Four to Sixshampoos. • This type of haircolor used Smaller Dye Molecules that stick to the cuticle layer of the hair. • Direct dyes only have the ability to make hair Darkerand cannot Lighter the Hair. • This type of haircolor will last for Four to sixshampoos.

  35. Semi permanent Haircolor

  36. Haircolor Types • DEMIPERMANENT HAIRCOLOR • Demipermanenthaircolor is for Deposit only and cannot lighten the hair. • This type of haircolor lasts longer than semipermanent or temporary colors and is Gentler on the hair. • Demipermanenthaircolor can be used for: • Correcting Unwanted Tones • Refreshing Washed out Ends • Enhancing Natural Color • Blending Grey Hair • This type of hair color uses a mixture of both Directdyes and Oxidativedyes.

  37. HairColor Types • PERMANENT HAIRCOLOR • Permanent haircolor can Liftand Deposit color at the same time and in one process on Virgin hair • This type of color uses Oxidativedyes. • Oxidative dyes start out Smallto slip under the cuticle layer and then become Largerduring a process called Oxidation. • Once oxidized, the color molecules are too large to Escape the Cuticle Layer.

  38. Haircolor Types • This type of haircolor is considered best for Covering Grey Hair. • Permanent haircolor contains Ammoniawhich is used to swell the cuticle layer and allow color molecules to pass through. • This type of color is mixed with Hydrogen Peroxide or H2O2which gives it it’s Ability To Lift. • Hydrogen peroxide is available is varying strengths called Volume. • The level of volume controls the level of Liftin formulation.

  39. Haircolor Types • 10 volume will give you Onelevel of lift (on virgin hair). • 20 volume will give you Twolevels of lift (on virgin hair). • 30 volume will give you Three levels of lift (on virgin hair). • 40 volume will give you Fourlevel of lift (on virgin hair).

  40. Learning Objectives 1. List the reasons people color their hair. 2. Explain how the hair’s porosity affects haircolor. 3. Understand the types of melanin found in hair. 4. Define and identify levels and their role in formulating haircolor. 5. Identify primary, secondary, and tertiary colors. 6. Know what role tone and intensity play in haircolor. 7. List and describe the categories of haircolor. 8. Explain the role of hydrogen peroxide in a haircolor formula. 9. Explain the action of hair lighteners. 10. List the four key questions to ask when formulating a haircolor

  41. Learning Objectives 11. Understand why a patch test is useful in haircoloring. 12. Define what a preliminary strand test is and why it is used. 13. List and describe the procedure for a virgin single-process color service. 14. Understand the two processes involved in double-proceshaircoloring. 15. Describe the various forms of hair lightener. 16. Understand the purpose and use of toners. 17. Name and describe the three most commonly used methods for highlightening. 18. Know how to properly cover gray hair. 19. Know the rules of color correction. 20. Know the safety precautions to follow during the haircolor process.

  42. Lighteners

  43. Lighteners • Lighteners • Lighteners have a very high Alkalinityand if used incorrectly can damage the hair shaft. • These chemical compounds lighten hair by dispersing, Melanin, and decolorizing the Natural hair pigment, as well as Artificial pigment. • Hydrogen peroxide serves as the Catalyst .

  44. Lighteners • Lighteners are used to: • Lift Natural Pigment • Lift Artificial Pigment • Special Effects Haircoloring • Color Correction

  45. Lighteners • There are 10 stages of lightening the hair can go through: • 1. Blue • 2. Blue Violet • 3. Violet • 4. Violet Red • 5. Red • 6. Red Orange • 7. Orange • 8. Yellow Orange • 9. Yellow • 10. Pale Yellow

  46. Lighteners • During the 10 stages of lightening, the hair’s Underlyingpigment or _Undertone is exposed. • Underlying pigment is found in All levels of hair. • Undertones are Unrefined warm tones that usually look Harsh . • Darker levels of hair will go through Morestages of lightening whereas lighter levels of hair will go through Less .

  47. Lighteners • Types of lightener. • There are 3 types of lightener: • Oil • Cream • Powder • Oiland Creamare both considered to be on-the-scalp lighteners. • Some Powderedcan be used on the scalp, however powdered lighteners are considered to be a Off-the-scalp lightener

  48. Lighteners • Toners • Often times when using lighteners to lift hair, the contributing pigment exposed in the process can lookUnrefined or Harsh. • To counter this, we use Toners. • Toners are deposit only colors that are formulated by the stylist to Neutralizethe unwanted warm tones. • Toners are the second step in a Double Processcolor.

  49. Lighteners • Time Factors when using lighteners • Different factors in the hair or it’s environment can affect the time it takes the hair to Process _. • Darker natural level- the more Melanin in the hair, the longer it will take to lighten. • Porosity- porous hair can process or lighten much Faster than resistant hair. • Desired tone- lifting past theTen stages of hair to achieve pale blonde can also take longer. • Strength of product- stronger formulas that have been mixed with higher Volume Developer will lighten hair faster. • Heat- Heat makes color and lightener process Faster by swelling the cuticle layer.