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Geographic Information Systems. GIS Software. 1. The Early GISs. SURFACE II, by Kansas Geological Survey SYMAP, by Harvard Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis. SURFACE II. Surface III displays of three-dimensional, single-valued surfaces

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1 the early giss
1. The Early GISs
  • SURFACE II, by Kansas Geological Survey
  • SYMAP, by Harvard Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis
surface ii
SURFACE II
  • Surface III displays of three-dimensional, single-valued surfaces
  • The input to Surface III is a text file containing X-Y-Z data points. The program will create a matrix of rows and columns describing the surface. The gridding methods include distance-weighted averaging, polynomial fitting, and Universal kriging, Etc.
surface ii4
SURFACE II
  • The software can create several kinds of maps

contour maps

three-dimensional fishnet diagrams

color-filled contours

data-point postings

  • Grids can be added, subtracted, multiplied, or divided by one another (grid-to-grid operations)
symap
SYMAP
  • Developed as general-purpose mapping package beginning in 1964
  • Output exclusively on line printers
  • Poor resolution, low quality
  • Limited functionality but simple to use
symap6
SYMAP ..
  • A way for non-cartographers to make maps
  • First real demonstration of ability of computers to make maps
  • Sparked enormous interest in a previously unheard-of technology
2 major gis software packages
2. Major GIS Software Packages
  • ArcGIS, Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI)
  • Autodesk MapGuide, Autodesk Inc.
  • GRASS, Open Source Geospatial Foundation (OSGeo)
  • IDRISI, Clark University Graduate School of Geography
  • MapInfo, Pitney Bowes Business Insight
  • Maptitude, Caliper Corporation
  • Geomedia, Intergraph Corporation
arcgis arc info
ArcGIS (ARC/INFO)
  • A long lived, full function GIS
  • With hundreds of sophisticated tools for map automation, data conversion, database management, map overlay and spatial analysis, interactive display and query graphic editing, and address geocoding
  • A relational database interface
  • Changed to object-oriented design in version 8+ in the late 1990s
autodesk map
Autodesk Map
  • Built on the capabilities of AutoCAD, Autodesk inc.
  • Extensively used in planning, engineering, and architecture
  • Supports topology, Oracle and SQL query, and grids/images
  • Extensive tools for coordinate conversion, map editing and digitizing
  • Allows an open architecture
  • http://usa.autodesk.com
grass
GRASS
  • Geographic Resources Analysis Support System
  • The first Unix based GIS, using raster data
  • It is a free software with an open architecture
  • Started by the U.S. Army - Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (USA-CERL), now run by OSGeo foundation
grass 6 0 features
Grass 6.0 Features
  • New Vector Engine (geometry)
  • Volume visualization
  • Vector network analysis

http://grass.itc.it/grass60/index.php

idrisi
IDRISI
  • A not-for profit operation (School of Geography, Clark University)
  • A raster GIS, with an open architecture
  • Image processing and spatial statistical analysis
  • Time-series analysis, spatial decision support, uncertainty analysis, fuzzy analysis
mapinfo
MapInfo
  • Start out as a less than full-blown GIS
  • Data ready
  • Suited to economic, political, cultural, industrial applications
  • Geomarketing
  • Site location analysis
maptitude
Maptitude
  • Related to TransCAD, GIS-Plus GIS, Caliper Corp
  • Transportation-oriented GIS package
  • Come with geocoded and system-ready data
  • Allow creation and maintenance of database, analysis of geographic relationship, and map display
  • http://www.caliper.com/tcovu.htm
geomedia
Geomedia
  • A layer based GIS
  • With a set of modules for different functions
  • There are additional extensions for land information, parcel management, public works, and transportation
  • Maintains topologically clean data without building topology
  • Use Orical and SQL for attribute data
3 picking up a gis software
3. Picking up a GIS Software
  • Cost
  • Training
  • Manual
  • User support group
  • Software maintenance

That is all well and good, but, but does it come with a remote?

4 readings
4. Readings
  • Keith Clarke, 2003, Getting Started with Geographic Information Systems, 4th edition, Prentice Hall.