History of safety and health
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History of Safety and Health. Work… why work?. Noun – exertion directed to produce something Verb – the act of doing or exerting oneself. What is safety… related to work?. Identifying, assessing, and eliminating or controlling workplace hazards …free from danger…. Safety and Health History.

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Work why work
Work… why work?

  • Noun – exertion directed to produce something

  • Verb – the act of doing or exerting oneself

What is safety related to work
What is safety… related to work?

  • Identifying, assessing, and eliminating or controlling workplace hazards

  • …free from danger…

Safety and health history
Safety and Health History

  • Safety and health has a long history. hunting… shaping of spears made of quarts (lead to silicosis), early mining…

  • As time wore on began to recognize the hazards of working with lead, silver, mercury…

Safety and health history1
Safety and Health History

  • Industrial Revolution

    • Substituting inanimate for animal sources of power

    • Substituting machines for human skills and strength

    • Inventing new methods for transforming raw materials

    • Organizing work in large units

    • Appearance of mass manufacturing

Safety and health history2
Safety and Health History

  • What are the safety impacts as a result of the IR?

    • Created hazards never before

      created – such as…

    • As a result, there was a greater need for hazard control

Children in the workplace
Children in the Workplace

1900 consensus showed:

  • 1,750,178 working children between 10 and 15 years

  • 25,000 in mines and quarries

  • 12,000 in making chewing tobacco and cigars

  • 5,000 in sawmills,

  • 5,000 at or near steam driven planers and lathes

  • 7,000 in laundries

  • 2,000 in bakeries

  • 138,000 as servants and waiters in hotels and restaurants

Safety and health history3
Safety and Health History

  • Tracking injuries and illnesses

    • Occupational disease cases

    • Pittsburgh Survey (20th century)

Safety and health history4
Safety and Health History

  • Major events

    • Triangle Shirtwaist Fire

    • Gauley Bridge, WV

    • Love canal

Safety and health history5
Safety and Health History

  • Enactment of Major Legislation

    • Workers’ Compensation – 1911 Wisconsin

    • OSHAct 1970

Safety and health history6
Safety and Health History

  • More on the OSHAct

    • Why implement the OSHAct?

    • Goal?

    • Who is responsible for instituting OSHA?

    • Major components… later…

How big is the problem
How Big is the Problem?


  • Fatalities: 4,900 in 2002 (injuries)

  • 3.7 million suffered disabling injuries

  • Average cost for worker death was $1.1 million

  • Cost per disabling injury was $33,000

    *source: 2002 NSC statistics

  • Workers Compensation paid out 49.4 billion in 2001

    Other Information:

  • Injury pattern

    • <10% women

    • <10% older workers are injured


Accidents are the fourth leading cause of death in this country after heart disease, cancer, and strokes:

*This list includes work-related and non-work-related incidents.

Accident costs
Accident Costs

  • ~150 Billion in the U.S. or $420 per worker

  • Costs associated with accidents

    • Lost work hours

    • Medical costs

    • Insurance premiums and administration

    • Property damage

    • Fire losses

    • Indirect costs

Changing workplace
Changing Workplace

  • Workforce – 56% of employers have less than 100 employees

  • Age – by 2010 the majority of workers will be >54 years

  • Gender – Females increasing to estimated 46% in 2010 (with 35% as mothers)

Workplace current trends
Workplace Current Trends

  • Current trend is that only construction and service industries adding new jobs

  • Manufacturing and mining jobs decreasing

  • Substantial number of workers now holding multiple jobs

Trends continued
Trends Continued

  • Union representation decreasing

  • Working at home increasing

  • Alternate employment

  • Help agencies

  • Contingent workers

  • Independent contractors

  • On-call workers

Trends continued1
Trends Continued

  • Multiple and part-time jobs

  • Technology used more

  • Hours and pace of working

  • Work arrangements (e.g., team work)

Safety and health terms
Safety and Health Terms

  • What is risk?

    • The possibility of loss or injury to people and property

    • Contributing factors for risk:

      • Frequency

      • Severity

      • Unit of exposure

History of safety and health

  • Types of Risk?

    • Societal and individual risk

    • Residual risk

      • The risk remaining after the risk management strategies have been implemented.

    • Perceived risk

      • The level of risk that each individual acknowledges in a particular risk assessment.

Safety vs risk
Safety vs. Risk

  • Acceptable Risk?

    • The risk associated with the best of the available alternatives

  • Laws of Acceptable Risk

    • Acceptable risk is proportional to the amount of benefit

    • The public will accept a higher level of voluntary risk than involuntary risk

    • People take more risk when it is controllable than when it is not controllable

So why is safety and health important
So… why is safety and health important?

  • Legal obligation… from whom/what??

  • Potential for criminal charges

Responsibility for job safety

Responsibility for Job Safety

The Charlie Morecraft Story