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Understanding Society. An End Has A Start. Spiritual-Magical Coping and Lung Cancer A Pilgrimage to an Unknown Land Jack Körver Odense - May 17, 2010. An End Has a Start. I don’t think that it’s Gonna rain again today There’s a devil at your side But an angel on her way The Editors.

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understanding society

Understanding Society

An End Has A Start

Spiritual-Magical Coping and Lung Cancer

A Pilgrimage to an Unknown Land

Jack Körver

Odense - May 17, 2010

an end has a start
An End Has a Start

I don’t think that it’s

Gonna rain again today

There’s a devil at your side

But an angel on her way

The Editors

pilgrimage 1
Pilgrimage (1)

All sorts of motives

  • Religious
  • Spiritual
  • Paranormal / psychic
  • Magical
pilgrimage 2
Pilgrimage (2)

Connectedness with

  • Nature
  • The Divine
  • World of the dead
  • Other pilgrims
  • Tradition and Future
  • Myself
pilgrimage as religious coping
Pilgrimage as (religious) coping
  • Meaning, sense of coherence, connectedness
  • Control and acceptance
  • Self-respect
cancer as a pilgrimage
Cancer as a pilgrimage
  • Pilgrim: he / she who is going beyond the own yard
  • Rite de passage (Van Gennep)
  • Liminal phase (Turner)
  • Sensitive to ritual and symbols (Waaijman)
religious coping
Religious Coping
  • Promising area in the coping research (Folkman & Moskowitz, 2004)
  • Search for significance in times of stress, in ways related to the sacred (Pargament, 1997)
  • Receptivity Scale (Van Uden et. al., 2004)
  • Spiritual, paranormal and magical experiences, and ritual (Kwilecki, 2004)
spiritual coping and lung cancer
Spiritual Coping and Lung Cancer
  • PhD project, started in 2008
  • Supervisors: Van Uden & Pieper
  • Central question: Which religious / spiritual coping strategies play a role in coping with lung cancer?
    • Ritual, spiritual experience, magic
    • Stages of the disease process
    • Event – context – person
    • Dutch context
lung cancer
Lung Cancer
  • High mortality
  • Physical stress
    • Dyspnoea
    • Fatigue
    • Nausea
  • Psychological stress
    • Panic
    • Anxiety
    • Depression
  • Existential stress
lung cancer1
Lung Cancer

The saddest thing that I’d ever seen

Were smokers outside the hospital doors

The Editors, An End Has a Start

questionnaire 1
Questionnaire (1)
  • Pulmonologists in 12 hospitals
  • Inclusion
    • Diagnosis at least one month ago
    • 18 years or older
    • Managing the Dutch language
  • Permission Medical Ethics Committee
  • Written informed consent
questionnaire 2
Questionnaire (2)

Background information

  • Demographic data: gender, age, family status, education, work
  • Diagnosis, treatment, stage
  • Support in network
  • Religious background
questionnaire 3
Questionnaire (3)

Background information: first results

  • 209 respondents
  • 45% response rate
  • 67% male, 33% female
  • age: mean = 66 years (sd = 10)
  • 84% married
  • 90% children (mode = 2)
  • 15% higher or academic education
  • 62% not working anymore
questionnaire 4
Questionnaire (4)

Background information: first results

  • Time since diagnosis
    • 32% in the last 6 months
    • 70% in the last 2 years
  • Treatment results
    • 47% insecure
    • 25% free of symptoms
    • 18% cured
    • 10% last phase of life
questionnaire 5
Questionnaire (5)

Background information: first results

  • Support (often / almost always)
    • Family 90%
    • Friends 65%
    • Fellow patients 13%
    • Medical personnel 47%
    • CAM 1%
    • Psychosocial 0%
    • Chaplain 1%
    • Fellow believers 3%
questionnaire 6
Questionnaire (6)

Background information: first results

  • Religious background
    • Attracted to Christianity 68%
    • No religion 26%
    • Catholic upbringing 87%
    • Religious sensitive 46%
    • Spiritual sensitive 10%
    • Paranormal sensitive 5%
    • Religious group 16%
questionnaire 7
Questionnaire (7)
  • Physical well-being
    • EORTC QLQ-30 and –LC13
    • Cancer Coping Questionnaire
  • Psychological well-being
    • STAI-trait: anxiety
    • Zung-d: depression
  • Existential well-being
    • SWBS, both subscales
    • Duke Religion Index
questionnaire 8
Questionnaire (8)
  • Coping
    • Brief COPE
  • Benefit Finding
    • Self-defined
  • Religious Coping
    • Brief RCOPE
    • Some items from the RCOPE
    • Theodicy
  • Receptivity Scale
questionnaire 9
Questionnaire (9)

Spiritual-magical coping

  • 63 items
  • Forms of spirituality and paranormal phenomena (Van IJssel, 2007)
  • Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (Tobacyk, 2004)
  • Magical Ideation Scale (Eckblad & Chapman, 1983)
  • Paranormal coping (Irwin, 1993; 2000)
  • Magical thinking and behaviour (Stivers, 1999; St-James, 2007)
questionnaire 10
Questionnaire (10)

4 Factors

  • Traditional Catholic rituals / customs
    • I trust the presence of my guardian angel
    • I pray that old little prayer
    • I lit a candle
  • Modern spiritual behaviour
    • I wear a healing stone or jewel
    • Stimulating my chakras I seek new vitality
    • I arrange a holy place in my home
questionnaire 11
Questionnaire (11)

4 Factors

  • Balance of life
    • I strive for a new balance between body and mind
    • I try to listen to my inner voice
    • I go walking in the nature
  • Connectedness of the cosmos
    • I guess this is no coincidence but has a hidden meaning
    • I assume I get a new chance in a next life
    • I trust the invisible mental forces in the cosmos
smokers outside the hospital
Smokers Outside the Hospital

Pull the blindfold down

So your eyes can’t see

Now run as fast as you can

Through this field of trees

Say goodbye to everyone you have ever known

You are not gonna see them ever again

I can’t shake this feeling I’ve got

My dirty hands

Have I been in the wars?

The saddest thing that I’d ever seen

Were smokers outside the hospital doors