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Postwar Era. Global Epidemic. Spring of 1918: Soldiers complain of flu like symptoms Fall of 1918: Influenza Pandemic Epidemic that occurs over large area and affects large portion of population. Terrifying Speed and spread towards civilians

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global epidemic
Global Epidemic
  • Spring of 1918: Soldiers complain of flu like symptoms
  • Fall of 1918: Influenza Pandemic
    • Epidemic that occurs over large area and affects large portion of population.
    • Terrifying Speed and spread towards civilians
    • Could kill a person 2-3 days after symptoms start
    • Strain of influenza disappears (20 million die)
scientific and social theories
Scientific and Social Theories
  • Increased people’s feelings that world was frightening.
  • Sigmund Freud:
    • Unconscious and not rational minded often controlled the people’s actions.
    • Explained irrational events in life (WW1; uneasiness).
  • Scientific Theories: Albert Einstein’s argument:
    • Even such definite concepts as motion, space, and time were relative.
    • Values differ greatly in different societies (Not one set of principals is good for all)-Moral Relativism
new directions in literature
New Directions in Literature
  • Oswald Sepngler wrote Decline of the West:
    • Youth to maturity to old age and then to death
    • European civilization would disintegrate
  • Lost Generation
    • One group of Americans expressed disillusionment
    • Gertrude Stein: “All of you young people who served in the war, you are all a lost generation.”
    • Ernest Hemingway: “The Sun Also Rises”
    • F. Scott Fitzgerald: “The Great Gatsby”
      • Moral grounding/American Dream

Marcel Proust:“Remembrance of Things Past”

    • Sensory impressions of disappeared past.
  • Thomas Mann: “The Magic Mountain”
    • Moral state of Europe/constant presence of death
  • Franz Kafka: wrote about surrealism
    • Conscious and unconscious ideas together to portray in a dreamlike way. Ex: The Castle
  • James Joyce:wrote “Ulysses”
    • “stream of consciousness” (records characters mind)
  • T.S. Eliot: wrote “The Waste Land”
    • Negative outlook of postwar years
    • World without faith
  • Igor Stravinsky:The Rite of Spring
    • Different instruments playing in different keys at same time.
  • Arnold Schoenberg: twelve-tone scale instead of eight
    • Wrote pieces for unusual groups of insturments.
    • Ex: Quartet for Violin, Clarinet, Tenor Saxophone, and Piano
  • Industrialized countries had growing number of households with radios.
  • Jazz: originated in New Orleans (African-Americans)
    • Swept United States and Europe
    • Louis Armstrong, Billy Holiday
  • Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque: designed Cubism
    • Geometric designs (cubes flat planes, and spheres).
    • Example: Half of face in profile and half from the front.
  • Salvador Dali: Persistence of Memory
    • Surrealistic painter (objects did not relate to one another)
  • Dadaists: group that used random images to reflect the insanity of war.
  • Louis Sullivan: Helped develop skyscraper and Fundamentalism:
    • Building designed for specific use instead of particular style.
  • Frank Lloyd Wright: buildings should fit in environment.
  • International Style:
    • Uninterrupted sheets of steel and glass
  • Motion pictures were shown in 1910
  • By 1920’s, millions of moviegoers (Escape and Entertainment)
  • Watching sports became popular
    • Baseball: United States/Japan
    • Golf: Most of World
    • Tennis: United States/Europe
    • Soccer: Europe/Latin America (World Cup 1930)
    • Olympics grew and athletes became heroes
consumer culture
Consumer Culture
  • Price of many goods dropped rapidly
    • Automobiles/Assembly Lines
  • Advertising through the radio
  • Buying on Credit (Purchase right away)
  • Present Moment instead of Future
  • Flappers:
    • Short hair and skirts, smoked, went out jazz clubs.
  • 18th Amendment: Prohibition
    • making alcoholic beverages illegal.