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RpEX. Laser-Driven H/D Target at MIT-Bates. Ben Clasie Massachusetts Institute of Technology Ben Clasie, Chris Crawford, Dipangkar Dutta, Haiyan Gao, Jason Seely Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Workshop on “Testing QCD through Spin Observables in Nuclear Targets”

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Laser driven h d target at mit bates

RpEX

Laser-Driven H/D Target at MIT-Bates

Ben ClasieMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyBen Clasie, Chris Crawford, Dipangkar Dutta, Haiyan Gao, Jason SeelyMassachusetts Institute of Technology

Workshop on

“Testing QCD through Spin Observables in Nuclear Targets”

University of Virginia 2002


Introduction

Atomic Beam Source (H)

Well established technology

~1014 atoms/cm2 thickness

~84% degree of dissociation

~80% polarization

Laser-Driven Target (goal, H)

Compact design

~ 1015 atoms/cm2 thickness

~ 60% degree of dissociation

~ 50% polarization

Introduction

  • The Laser-Driven Target (LDT) is a source of nuclear spin polarized hydrogen or deuterium atoms

  • The H or D nuclei are polarized through collisions with polarized, intermediate alkali-metal atoms

  • The LDT is similar to the atomic beam source as both targets are a source of nuclear spin polarized H or D atoms

  • The LDT flow rate (greater than 1018 atoms/s) is approximately 25 times larger than the atomic beam source and has the potential of a higher figure-of-merit


Laser driven h d target at mit bates

  • The LDT is being developed for the South Hall Ring at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center; an ABS target is currently being installed

  • The LDT is planned to be used in the conditionally approved “Precision measurement of the Proton charge Radius” EXperiment (RpEX)

  • RpEX will measure the proton charge radius with sub 1% precision – a factor of three smaller than any single existing measurement

  • Several groups have demonstrated the feasibility of the laser-driven technique:

    • The Argonne group reported results of high atomic H/D polarization for flow rates in excess of 1018 atoms/s (Poelker 1995)

    • Nuclear polarization in a LDT was established by the Erlangen group (Stenger 1997) and the Argonne group (Fedchak 1998)

    • A laser-driven target that operated with flow rates above 1018 atoms/s was used in two proton scattering experiments at the IUCF Cooler Ring, 1998

    • The Erlangen group is developing a laser driven source to be installed at COSY


Optical pumping
Optical pumping MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center; an ABS target is currently being installed

Radiative

decays

Pumping

+

Potassium fine structure (dashed lines) and Zeeman splitting (solid lines) of the electron energy levels

  • Optical pumping is the process by which the angular momentum of the photon is transferred to the alkali-metal atom

  • Optical pumping of potassium vapor in a high magnetic field (1kG) produces high potassium electron polarization at high vapor densities (nK ~ 7x1011 atoms/cm3)


Spin temperature equilibrium ste
Spin temperature equilibrium (STE) MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center; an ABS target is currently being installed

  • Atomic potassium polarization is transferred to the H/D nuclei through spin-exchange collisions, without RF transitions

  • KH spin exchange, spin is transferred to the hydrogen electron

  • HH spin exchange, spin is transferred to the hydrogen nucleus through the hyperfine interaction

  • In STE, the polarization of the hydrogen nucleus equals the electron polarization

  • The nuclear polarization of deuterium is slightly larger than that of the electron in STE


Ldt description
LDT description MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center; an ABS target is currently being installed


Laser driven h d target at mit bates

  • The potassium ampoule is slowly heated- introducing vapor into the spin cell, which is polarized through optical pumping

  • Atomic H/D from the dissociator is polarized through spin-exchange collisions with the potassium, and flows into the storage cell

  • The dwell time for the hydrogen in the spin cell must be sufficient for spin temperature equilibrium

  • The Pyrex spin cell and aluminum storage cell are typically heated to 200oC and are coated with drifilm to reduce recombination/depolarization

  • There are two holes in the storage cell at 90o to the transport tube for measuring the polarization along the target length, with no direct path to the spin cell

  • To reduce the number of wall collisions, the spin cell is spherical


Laser driven h d target at mit bates

  • Pump laser and probe laser into the spin cell, which is polarized through optical pumping

  • The Ti-Sapphire laser, typically 2.3W with 0.8 GHz linewidth, is tuned to 770.1nm

  • An electro-optic modulator is planned

  • The pump beam is formed by expanding and circularly polarizing the laser

  • A small fraction of the Ti-Sapphire laser is used to make the probe beam

  • The Faraday rotation of the probe beam gives the potassium density and polarization rise time (Stenger 1997)

  • H/D electron polarimeter

  • In the first stage a 1 Tesla permanent sextupole magnet focuses one spin state and defocuses the other

  • The focused spin state is chopped at 20Hz and detected with a cross beam Quadrupole Mass Analyzer (QMA)

  • A bellows and gimble mount connects the polarimeter to the target chamber for alignment

  • The H/D electron polarization has been calculated to be in spin temperature equilibrium

  • Gas flow

  • The gas supply is research purity (1ppm) bottled H(D)

  • H2 or D2 pass through an MKS mass flow control, a pneumatic valve, and into the dissociator


Experimental results
Experimental results into the spin cell, which is polarized through optical pumping

The two holes in the target cell can be studied individually by changing the angle of the polarimeter

  • Large background due to the target chamber pressure

  • Uncorrected degree of dissociation =


Laser driven h d target at mit bates

  • A dissociator was made, without a spincell, and the degree of dissociation then measured directly at the dissociator (Blue)

  • The complete glassware using similar dissociator dimensions was then made and the degree of dissociation measured at the target cell (Red)

  • Dissociator aperture diameter = 1 mm


Laser driven h d target at mit bates


Laser driven h d target at mit bates

on the walls with a small increase in recombination+

-

  • The Ti-Sapphire laser is tuned to the two potassium resonances

  • Hydrogen flow rate = 1.5 sccm

  • Laser shutter closed unpolarized Laser shutter open 36% polarization

  • Atomic polarization=

Figure Of Merit (FOM) =

flow rate  (degree dissociation  polarization)2


Conclusions
Conclusions on the walls with a small increase in recombination

  • The LDT has produced high atomic polarized H and D atoms at flow rates exceeding 1018 atom/s, which have been calculated to be in spin temperature equilibrium

  • The design goal for LDT is a flow rate of 2 x 1018 atoms/s with 60% degree of dissociation and 50% polarization

  • Further improvements are expected with the use of an electro-optic modulator and optimization of the operating parameters of the new spincell


References
References on the walls with a small increase in recombination

  • M. Poelker et al., Nucl. Instr. And Meth. A 364, 58 (1995).

  • J. A. Fedchak et al., Nucl. Instr. And Meth. A 417, 182 (1998).

  • J. Stenger et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4177 (1997).

  • J. Stenger et al., Nucl. Instr. And Meth. A 384, 333 (1997).