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Artefacts- museum, images, IT Local connections Story Drama Accessible written evidence PowerPoint Presentation
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Artefacts- museum, images, IT Local connections Story Drama Accessible written evidence

Artefacts- museum, images, IT Local connections Story Drama Accessible written evidence

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Artefacts- museum, images, IT Local connections Story Drama Accessible written evidence

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  1. Invaders and SettlersInterpretations – who tells the story?possibilities for responseHow to engage children? Artefacts- museum, images, IT Local connections Story Drama Accessible written evidence Cross curricular links Key concepts chronology, change and continuity, cause and consequence , bias significance relevance Success criteria- process methodology Creative outcomes

  2. Key Questions- when? why? what? • Why did the Roman Invade ? • Why did the Saxons Invade? • Why did the Vikings Invade ? • Characteristics of Roman /Saxon /Viking life • What made the Romans so Powerful ? • How and when did the invaders become Christians? • What legacy did these people leave us? • Why do we know little about the ‘Celts’? • What can we learn from archaeology? • What other sources are there? Interpretations?

  3. Chariot lynch pin Mid-Late Iron Age, about 300BC-43AD Found with a metal detector at Upham, • Linch pins were used to hold the wheels in place on the axles of Iron Age chariots or carts, and were often elaborately decorated.. The Romans were very impressed by the Celts' use of chariots in battle. Julius Caesar himself wrote "In chariot fighting the Britons begin by driving all over the field, hurling their spears. The terror caused by the horses and the noise are enough to throw their enemies into disorder". The chariot drivers also impressed Caesar: "Even on a steep slope they are able to control the horses at full gallop and turn them in a moment". • We can only speculate on how this lynch pin came to be lost at Upham. Could it have become detached from a chariot in the heat of a long-forgotten battle, or did it perhaps fall off of an old abandoned cart at the side of an ancient track way? • Length 120mm. Diameter

  4. ‘Celts’ and Romans • Pre Roman invasion British regional tribes-iron age • Non literate, pastoral, druids, horses chariots • Rural hill forts- • 55BC and again 54 BC – Gallic Wars Julius Caesar invades- British resistance and British weather mean invasions do not succeed • Trade links.. Objects .. Raw materials • AD43 Emperor Claudius invades – motives? – honour, materials, Gaul • Client kings e.g. Cogidumnus Atrebates, Fishbourne • AD47 Maiden Castle Captured • AD51 Caractacus captured • AD60 Druid stronghold on Anglesey captured • AD61 Boudicca revolt- tribes subdued-n.b. sources Tacitus, Dio Cassio, archaeology • Some Celts remain in West – • www.butserancientfarm

  5. Hadrian's Wall AD122 – boundary to Empire – symbolic. Practical trade border? 5th (AD 400s) Century AD Roman Empire under pressure Honorarius – withdrawal of troops Legacy /Latin /evidence Arthur legendry character suggested as a Romano British resistance leader against Saxons* Evidence sources Caesar, Tacitus Buildings, roads, coins, objects, Latin, chestnuts , chickens Christianity 313 Constantine permits worship in the Empire

  6. Writing from Vinolanda- I send you an invitation to come to us on September 11th for my birthday party which will be more fun if you came. Give my love to your husband. My husband sends his love to you and your sons

  7. Lesson ideas • Caesar – invasion motives plausibility • Claudius- invasion motives- evidence and advisers activity • Boudicca Revolt ( Hants Packs) • Lots of evidence on Roman life style • • Spy in the Roman Camp, Celtic Britain and lots more good stuff see The Romans Attack Maiden Castle| Roman mapping • Build a Roman Road

  8. The Saxons-timeline • 340-369 – Pirate raids on coastal Britain • Saxons as Roman mercenaries • Saxon Shore forts e.g. Porchester • Gildas’ ( British monk) written account – wages of sin • 400-500 Picts Scots Angles Saxon Jutes invade Britain- why? Wealth • 476 Fall of Western Roman Empire Vandals • 500 Kent and Wessex powerful • 599 St Augustine in Kent re- introduction of Christianity • After c650 East Anglia , Mercia , Northumbria ( Oswald) dominant kingdoms • 731 Bede writes history • C750 Offa of Mercia – Offa’s Dyke- keep Welsh Celts out • 793 Vikings attack LIndisfarne • 871 Alfred becomes king • 878 Alfred wins battle of Edington Danelaw follows • 991 Aethelred pays £10,000 to Danes , Balle of Maldon • 1016 Danes under Canute control England • 1042 Edward the Confessor • 1066 Battle of Stamford Bridge and…

  9. Saxon Activities • • the end of Roman Rule – magic histories • Saxon settler • Saxon Farming game •

  10. C 624 King Redwald- rich Pagan / Christian Gold precious stones ( India) Lyre -music Bretwalda mentioned by Bede Several kings smaller then larger to main Saxon kingdoms Sutton Hoo treasure = culture etc- le4sson ideas at Sutton Hoo activities Sutton Hoo burial ship

  11. Ad 673-735 Jarrow Tynemouth Wide interests and writing well read Saw Viking raids as divine retribution for sin Used term English from Angles – specialness Viking raids contribute to unity?? Overlordship Bretwalda 660 Synod of Whitby – Rome v Iona Bede

  12. Lindisfarne Gospels • 635 Lindesfarne monastery set up • 731 Bede completes Ecclesiastical History of the English People • 793 Vikings attack Lindesfarne-start of conquests in north and east Britain

  13. more threats from the sea-Viking raids • From Norway and Denmark • To – America, Europe, Asia. colonies in Greenland , Iceland Orkney ( Caithness till 1150s) trading posts e.g. Dublin • 830 raids Kent East Anglia South coast • 851 Over wintered in Thanet • Motives- shortage of land • need for fame and wealth • Dangled – blackmail • Farming and trading ( slaves and commodities e.g. fur, iron amber) • Culture- initially Pagan Norse gods Thor Odin oral sagas • Later Christian

  14. Vikings- Raiders or Traders • Hants packs- styereotypes • Texts • Orkneyinga saga • Viking cities – York Dublin, Kiev

  15. Alfred the Great • B 849 son of Ethelwulf had been to Rome with St Swithun • 871-899 Alfred’s rule • Viking incursions – Northumbria taken and East Anglia, East Midlands over run by 860 • 876 Jorvik established • 876 Massive invasion of Vikings lead by Guthrum – takes Wareham • 878 Athelney marshes – England almost completely overrun… legend of cakes • Battle of Edington 878 • Treaty of Wedmore with Guthrun ( Aethelstan Christian) established Danelaw- • Alfred continues to establish navy and consolidate power • Builds forts -

  16. Silver penny of Alfred Anglo-Saxon, AD875-885 From an archaeological excavation on the Cathedral Green, Winchester, Hampshire The obverse inscription reads, +AELFREDREXSA+ ('Alfred, King of the Saxons') with the reverse reading, LVLLA MONETA ('Lulla, moneyer). Weight 1.45g. . On display at City Museum, Wintanceaster Gall

  17. Alfred’s rule and initiatives • Religious mission – raids punishment for sin • Literate – translated from Latin works into Anglo Saxon- education • Monastic tradition • Calendars and time keeping – • Capital Winchester- scriptorum • Life written by Asser – a monk • Anglo Saxon Chronicles – Winchester Peterborough • Legal code - - oaths, wergild =compensation, ordeal (water, iron, choking) limited blood feud- synthesis of Wessex and Mercia humane and Christian • Layers of society warriors , monks, craftsmen , farmers, slaves

  18. And after…significance • English language – Saxon / Norse literature christianity • Identity- ( Victorian reinvention, Imperial justification) • Laws • Coinage • Navy • Defence force and forts, burghs • Monastic tradition -music • Saxon Kings till Knut , • Edward the Confessor • 1066 – William of Normandy • Anglo Saxon Chronicle • Battle of Maldon • Activity- mapping language • Beowulf- reading

  19. Web sources • Explore • Saxons, Vikings, Romans- adult site • • • • • • Search other…