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CSUN Information Systems. Systems Analysis & Design. http://www.csun.edu/~dn58412/IS431/IS431_SP14.htm. System Proposal & Project Management. IS 431: Lecture 7. System Proposal & Project Management. Feasibility Analysis Alternative (Candidate) System Solutions. Cost-benefit Analysis

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systems analysis design

CSUN Information Systems

Systems Analysis & Design

http://www.csun.edu/~dn58412/IS431/IS431_SP14.htm

System Proposal & Project Management

IS 431: Lecture 7

system proposal project management
System Proposal & Project Management
  • Feasibility Analysis
  • Alternative (Candidate) System Solutions.
  • Cost-benefit Analysis
  • System Proposal Reports
  • Project Management

IS 431 : Lecture 7

feasibility analysis
Feasibility Analysis
  • Feasibility is the measure of how beneficial or practical the development of an information system will be to an organization.
  • Creeping Commitment approach to feasibility proposes that feasibility should be measured throughout the life cycle.
  • Feasibility Analysis Checkpoints:
    • Systems Analysis — Preliminary Investigation
    • Systems Analysis — Problem Analysis
    • Systems Design — Decision Analysis

IS 431 : Lecture 7

feasibility analysis1
Feasibility Analysis …
  • Technical feasibility is a measure of the practicality of a specific technical solution and the availability of technical resources and expertise.
  • Operational feasibility is a measure of how well the solution will work in the organization. It is also a measure of how people feel about the system/project.
  • Economic feasibility is a measure of the cost-effectiveness of a project or solution.
  • Schedule feasibility is a measure of how reasonable the project timetable is.

IS 431 : Lecture 7

cost benefit analysis
Cost-Benefit Analysis

Costs:

  • Development costs are one time costs that will not recur after the project has been completed.
  • Operating costs are costs that tend to recur throughout the lifetime of the system. Such costs can be classified as:
    • Fixed costs — occur at regular intervals but at relatively fixed rates.
    • Variable costs — occur in proportion to some usage factor.

Benefits:

  • Tangible benefits are those that can be easily quantified.
  • Intangible benefits are those benefits believed to be difficult or impossible to quantify.

IS 431 : Lecture 7

economic feasibility
Economic Feasibility
  • Payback Analysis
    • Payback analysis is to determine if and when an investment will pay for itself.
    • Payback period is the period of time that will lapse before accrued benefits overtake accrued and continuing costs.
  • Net Present Value
    • a dollar today is worth more than a dollar one year from now
    • Discount rate – a percentage that the business earns on investing money in other projects or investments: opportunity cost

IS 431 : Lecture 7

economic feasibility1
Economic Feasibility …
  • Return-on-Investment (ROI) Analysis – a technique that compares the lifetime profitability of alternative solutions.
    • ROI for a solution or project is a percentage rate that measures the relationship between the amount the business gets back from an investment and the amount invested.
    • Lifetime ROI = (estimated lifetime benefits – estimated lifetime costs) / estimated lifetime costs
    • Annual ROI = lifetime ROI / lifetime of the system

IS 431 : Lecture 7

payback analysis
Payback Analysis

IS 431 : Lecture 7

candidate systems matrix

Characteristics

Portion of System Computerized

Brief description of that portion of the system that would be computerized in this candidate.

Benefits

Brief description of the business benefits that would be realized for this candidate.

Servers and Workstations

A description of the servers and workstations needed to support this candidate.

Software Tools Needed

Software tools needed to design and build the candidate (e.g., database management system, emulators, operating systems, languages, etc.). Not generally applicable if applications software packages are to be purchased.

Candidate 1

COTS package from Entertainment Software Solutions would be purchased and customized to satisfy required functionality.

This solution can be implemented quickly because it’s a purchased solution.

Technically architecture dictates Pentium III, MS Windows 2000 class servers and workstations (clients).

MS Visual C++ and MS Access for customization of package to provide report writing and integration.

Candidate 3

Same as candidate 2.

Same as candidate 2.

Same as candidate 1.

MS Visual Basic 5.0

System Architect 2001

Internet Explorer

Candidate 2

Member Services and warehouse operations in relation to order fulfillment.

Fully supports user required business processes for SoundStage Inc. Plus more efficient interaction with member accounts.

Same as candidate 1.

MS Visual Basic 5.0System Architect 2001Internet Explorer

Candidate Systems Matrix

IS 431 : Lecture 7

candidate systems matrix1

Characteristics

Application Software

A description of the software to be purchased, built, accessed, or some combination of these techniques.

Method of Data Processing

Generally some combination of: on-line, batch, deferred batch, remote batch, and real-time.

Output Devices and Implications

A description of output devices that would be used, special output requirements, (e.g., network, preprinted forms, etc.), and output considerations (e.g., timing constratints)

Candidate 1

Package solution

Client/Server

(2) HP4MV department laser printers

(2) HP5SI LAN laser printers

Candidate 3

Same as candidate 2.

Same as candidate 1.

Same as candidate 2.

Candidate 2

Custom solution

Same as candidate 1.

(2) HP4MV department laser printers.

(2) HP5SI LAN laser printers

(1) PRINTRONIX bar-code printer (includes software & drivers)

Web pages must be designed to VGA resolution. All internal screens will be designed for SVGA resolution.

Candidate Systems Matrix …

IS 431 : Lecture 7

candidate systems matrix2

Characteristics

Input devices and Implications

A description of input methods to be used, input devices (e.g., keyboard, mouse, etc.), special input requirements (e.g., new or revised forms from which data would be input), and input considerations (e.g., timing of actual inputs).

Storage Devices and Implications

Brief description of what data would be stored, what data would be accessed from existing stores, what storage media would be used, how much storage capacity would be needed, and how data would be organized.

Candidate 1

Keyboard & mouse.

MS SQL Server DBMS with 1000GB arrayed capability.

Candidate 3

Same as candidate 2.

Same as candidate 1.

Candidate 2

Apple “Quick Take” digital camera and software

(15) PSC Quickscan laser bar-code scanners

(1) HP Scanjet 4C Flatbed Scanner

Keyboard and mouse

Same as candidate 1.

Candidate Systems Matrix …

IS 431 : Lecture 7

feasibility matrix
Feasibility Matrix

IS 431 : Lecture 7

requirements statement
Requirements Statement

IS 431 : Lecture 7

project vs process management
Project vs. Process Management

Project Management is the process of scoping, planning, staffing, organizing, directing, and controlling the development of an acceptable system at a minimum cost within a specified time frame.

Process Management is an ongoing activity that documents, manages the use of, and improves an organization’s chosen methodology (the “process”) for system development. Process management is concerned with the activities, deliverables, and quality standards to be applied to all projects.

IS 431 : Lecture 7

measures of project success
Measures of Project Success
  • The resulting information system is acceptable to the customer.
  • The system was delivered “on time.”
  • The system was delivered “within budget.”
  • The system development process had a minimal impact on ongoing business operations.

IS 431 : Lecture 7

poor expectations management
Poor Expectations Management

Scope Creep – the unexpected and gradual growth of requirements during an information systems project.

Feature Creep– the uncontrolled addition of technical features to a system.

IS 431 : Lecture 7

causes of project failure
Causes of Project Failure
  • Failure to establish upper-management commitment to the project
  • Lack of organization’s commitment to the system development methodology
  • Taking shortcuts through or around the system development methodology
  • Poor expectations management
  • Premature commitment to a fixed budget and schedule
  • Poor estimating techniques
  • Overoptimism
  • The mythical man-month (Brooks, 1975)
  • Inadequate people management skills
  • Failure to adapt to business change
  • Insufficient resources
  • Failure to “manage to the plan”

IS 431 : Lecture 7

inter task dependencies
Inter-task Dependencies
  • Finish-to-start (FS)—The finish of one task triggers the start of another task.
  • Start-to-start (SS)—The start of one task triggers the start of another task.
  • Finish-to-finish (FF)—Two tasks must finish at the same time.
  • Start-to-finish (SF)—The start of one task signifies the finish of another task.

IS 431 : Lecture 7

task splitting delaying
Task Splitting & Delaying
  • Critical Path – the sequence of dependent tasks that determines the earliest possible completion date of the project.
    • Tasks that are on the critical path cannot be delayed without delaying the entire project schedule. To achieve resource leveling, critical tasks can only be split.
  • Slack Time – the amount of delay that can be tolerated between the starting time and completion time of a task without causing a delay in the completion date of the entire project.
    • Tasks that have slack time can be delayed to achieve resource leveling

IS 431 : Lecture 7

pert chart
PERT Chart

Project Initiation

Legend

5-3-2001

N/A

Task

Task

5-3-2001

N/A

Scheduled

Scheduled

Scheduled

Scheduled

intertask

Start

Finish

Start

Finish

dependency

Actual

Actual

Actual Start

Actual Start

Finish

Finish

Preliminary Investigation

5-3-2001

5-12-2001

5-3-2001

5-11-2001

Problem Analysis

Requirements Analysis

Decision Analysis

5-28-2001

7-15-2001

6-13-2001

7-30-2001

5-12-2001

6-12-2001

5-30-2001

7-18-2001

6-13-2001

8-3-2001

5-12-2001

6-14-2001

Design

Construction

7-3-2001

9-25-2001

7-19-2001

11-13-2001

7-5-2001

10-9-2001

7-20-2001

In Progress

Implementation

9-10-2001

12-14-2001

TBD

TBD

IS 431 : Lecture 7

critical path

TASK

D

Duration

Tue 2/20/01

7 days

Tue 2/20/01

0 days

TASK

A

TASK

B

TASK

C

TASK

E

TASK

I

Mon 2/5/01

3 days

Wed 2/7/01

2 days

Fri 2/9/01

2 days

Mon 2/19/01

6 days

Tue 2/27/01

5 days

Mon 2/5/01

0 days

Wed 2/7/01

0 days

Fri 2/9/01

0 days

Tue 2/20/01

1 day

Tue 2/27/01

0 days

TASK

F

TASK

G

Wed 2/14/01

3 days

Fri 2/16/01

2 days

The critical path is highlighted in red

Fri 2/16/01

2 days

Tue 2/20/01

2 days

Slack Time

TASK

H

Thu 2/15/01

1 day

Tue 2/20/01

3 days

Critical Path

IS 431 : Lecture 7

gantt chart

2001

ID

Task Name

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

1

Preliminary investigation

2

Problem analysis

3

Requirements analysis

4

Decision analysis

5

Design

6

Construction

7

Implementation

Today

Complete Task

Legend

Incomplete Task

Gantt Chart

IS 431 : Lecture 7

scheduling strategies
Scheduling Strategies

Forward Scheduling – a project scheduling approach that establishes a project start date and then schedules forward from that date.

Reverse Scheduling – a project scheduling strategy that establishes a project deadline and then schedules backward from that date.

IS 431 : Lecture 7