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Ecma/TC38-TG2/2009/113. ECMA-383 2 nd edition “Measuring the energy consumption of personal computing products”. Overview November 2009. What is ECMA-383 2 nd edition Who developed it and why Elements of the standard Categorisation Registration procedure Power modes and TEC

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agenda
What is ECMA-383 2nd edition

Who developed it and why

Elements of the standard

Categorisation

Registration procedure

Power modes and TEC

Test Procedure

Profiles

Results reporting

IEC plans

Agenda
slide3

What is ECMA-383 2nd edition?

  • Measuring the energy consumption of Personal Computing products
  • 2nd edition scope: Notebook and Desktop computers
    • Defines Typical Energy Consumption (TEC)
    • Defines Profiles and a Majority Profile to describe usages
    • Defines a categorization framework which enables “like for like” TEC comparisons
    • Defines how to measure and test TEC
  • ECMA-383 2nd edition does not provide
    • Pass / fail criteria
    • Power allowances for adders
slide4

Who is involved in Developing ECMA-383

  • Industry Expert Contributors
    • Advanced Micro Devices
    • Dell
    • Hewlett Packard
    • Intel
    • Microsoft
    • nvidia
    • Sony
    • Via
  • Industry Expert Observers
    • Apple
    • Fujitsu
    • Hitachi
    • IBM
    • Lexmark
    • Océ 
    • Ricoh
    • Toshiba
  • Government Expert Contributors
    • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
    • Terra Novum
  • Government Expert Observers
    • US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
    • EU EC JRC (European Union Commission Joint Research Centre)
slide5

Why Develop ECMA-383?

  • The development of Personal Computer energy regulations is accelerating across the globe
    • Provides a single global method for describing, measuring and evaluating personal computer energy usage
    • Provide a single method for doing “like for like” TEC comparisons
    • Single test procedure for global regulations and voluntary agreements
    • Provides a market driven categorizations framework with flexibility to keep up with market changes
elements of the standard
Elements of the Standard

On-line categories

On-line appeals form

On-line comments form

ECMA-383

Measuring the energy consumption

of personal computing products

ECMA-389

Procedure for the registration

of categories for ECMA-383

key clauses in ecma 383 2 nd edition
Scope

Terms and Definitions

Specifications for the Unit Under Test

Computer definitions

Power Modes

Duty Cycle Attributes

Profile Attributes

Categorisation Attributes

Test procedure

Test conditions

Categorisation

TEC formula

Meter specifications

Results reporting

Annex’s

Key clauses in ECMA-383 2nd edition
slide8

Why Categorize?

  • Categories are used to group systems with similar capability together
    • Allows a consumption (TEC) comparison based on their capabilities

Motor vehicle analogy

slide9
Notebook Computer

5 Categories: Netbook, thin/low end, mainstream, performance and high end

Desktop Computer

4 Categories: entry, mainstream, performance and high end

Discrete Graphics

Defined based on Frame Buffer BandWidth (FB_BW)

Creates 5 groups of graphics cards based on performance

Out of scope products defined through categorisation

ULE – Ultra Low Energy

Sets an Annualised TEC level below which a product is out of scope for the standard

Upper limit on # cores, memory channels and FB_BW

Products with any of these attributes above upper limits are out of scope

Rationale example:

If high end category stated >3 cores the TEC limit would be set based on known products on the market today (e.g. 4 cores max)

Would stifle innovation for someone bringing a “many” core product to market

Categories will be updated via the registration procedure. ULE level and the upper limits will be constantly modified

Categorisation (Nov 09)http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Categories_to_be_used_with_Ecma-383.htm
slide10
Why create the procedure

Categories need to be updated more often than the standard

Defines how to manage the category changes

in an open and transparent way

The procedure:

Appoints a registration authority (Ecma)

Defines where categories shall be posted

Defines the criteria for anyone globally to

submit change requests together. Includes an

appeals process

http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-383_comments_to_categories.php

http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-383_appeals_for_rejected_comments.php

In case of approval of change requests the

registration authority shall

Maintain a minimum of 6 months between

changes to the International Registers

Take into account all comment approvals and

manage the registers in a manner that minimises the

number of updates

ECMA-389: Procedure for the registration of categories for ECMA-383 2nd editionhttp://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-389.htm

slide11
Off Mode

- Plugged in and switched off

Sleep Mode

- The product can be woken by user interface devices.

WoL Sleep Mode

- Same as sleep mode but can also be woken via a LAN device

On Modes

- Not in Off or Sleep modes

Idle Modes

OS and software completely loaded.

Activity is limited to basic applications that the product starts by default

Short Idle Mode

Screen is on and set to as shipped brightness. Power management features have not engaged.

Long Idle Mode

The same as Short Idle Mode only the screen has blanked

Active (Work) Mode

The product is carrying our work

Power Mode DescriptionsNote: Full definitions are in the standard the descriptions below are a summary only
slide13

What is TEC?Typical Energy Consumption

TEC = (8760/1000)*(Poff*Toff + Psleep*Tsleep+ Pidle*Tidle + Psidle*Tsidle + Pwork*Twork)

Power States: Measured.

Duty Cycle:

Set by Profile Study

Represents system use.

Work Power:

Estimated or Measured depending on Profile Study.

  • TEC is calculated from common computer Power States weighted with yearly Duty Cycles determined by a specific usage profile (Majority Profile)
    • Computer TEC will vary depending on its use; e.g. enterprise use versus gamer use will provide a different yearly TEC
    • ECMA-383 determines TEC around a single use (Majority Profile)

ECMA-383 Overview (rev 1.1)

tec formulae
ECMA-383 2nd edition provides two TEC formulae's

TECactual

Requires accurate measurement of Active mode

User of the standard would be required to develop a workload based on the Active Workload Criteria defined in the standard.

TECestimate

Active included in Short-Idle

No workload required

A Profile TEC error of <15%

enables use of TECestimate

Product TEC error =

(TECactual / TECestimate) * 100%

Profile TEC error = The average

of all the product TEC errors in a

Profile study

Profile: A combination of duty cycle attributes and a given use case (e.g. office users, home users, gamers)

TEC Formulae
slide15

The Work Energy of TEC

Small Impact

Large Impact

Need to create an “Work” workload

Estimate Work power with Short Idle Power

  • Power Study is used to determine if work can be estimated or must be measured
    • If work energy has minimum impact on TEC,
      • Work energy can be estimated by short idle power
    • Else
      • Workload is created to measure Pwork
test procedure
Defines details on

Test setup

Specifications for test

equipment (watt meter

and ambient light meter)

Does not specify

specifications for line

conditioners

Test conditions: Regional

supply voltage + THD,

ambient temperature,

humidity and ambient light

Defines test procedure for any or all power modes

Off, Sleep, WoL Sleep, Long Idle, Short Idle and Active

Test Procedure
profiles
A combination of duty cycle attributes and a given use case (e.g. office users, home users, gamers)

Majority profile is the most common profile of users

Minority profiles represent less common profiles of users not represented in the majority profile

Profile Study: Performed to create a profile and generates

All the duty cycle attributes:

Time in each of the power modes

The profile active power ratio (PAPR):

The average on power divided by short idle power of a product (all products averaged together to provide the PAPR)

A number approaching 1 indicates the profile spends less time in active mode

The profile TEC error

Product TEC error: (TECactual / TECestimate) * 100%. Profile TEC error is the average of all the product TEC errors in a profile study

The Profile Active Workload Ratio

The average ratio of Active power divided by Short Idle Power

Used to validate that an active workload closely matches the profile study (through its PAPR).

Profiles
slide18

What is a Majority Profile?

  • The most common type of usage model
    • Determined by statistically significant data study
      • IDC or Gartner data could be used to determine the most common type of usage
  • Why a Majority Profile?
    • Provide accurate TEC measurement for the greatest population
      • Accuracy of TEC will diminish for systems using different usage patterns
    • Allows consumers to understand a relative consumption model across different computers
      • Even though their actual realized TEC will vary, it should vary in a similar way across all machines
    • Lowers the cost and time impact by providing a single unified way for the industry to express TEC for computing devices
    • Less confusion than providing 9-10 TEC values based on additional minority profiles
slide19

Developing a Majority Profile through a Profile Study

Tx = y

Px = z

 Pick a Majority Profile

 Perform a Duty Cycle Study on users that fit the majority profile, determines duty cycle for profile

 Perform a Power Study on users that fit the majority profile, determines if a Active Work load is need, and if so its characteristics

  • A Profile Study is performed to create a Majority Profile
    • Creates the necessary attributes needed to calculate TEC for that profile
    • Determines how to treat the active workload contribution to TEC
profile concepts described in 4 annex s
Overview of Profile Methodology

Majority Profile

How to conduct a Profile study

Sample TEC calculations

Profile concepts described in 4 Annex’s
results reporting
Minimum set of results to be reported

Product Description

Category (including date stamp)

Results

Test conditions

Declaration

Results reporting
iec plans
Priority for the Ecma Task Group is to convert ECMA-383 2nd edition into an IEC standard

IEC TC108 WG Environment have been contributing to the work from the start

Early draft sent to IEC for review and comments included in final draft of Ecma standard

Final draft ECMA-383 2nd edition sent to IEC in Oct 2009

Expect CD (committee draft) April 2010

CDV (committee draft for vote) August 2010

FDIS (final document international standard) April 2011

Will work with European Standards Organisation to develop a European Norm (EN) from IEC version

IEC plans
web links
ECMA-383 2nd edition

ECMA-389

Comments on categories

http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-383_comments_to_categories.php

Appeals on rejected comments

http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-383_appeals_for_rejected_comments.php

Categories

http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Categories_to_be_used_with_Ecma-383.htm

Historic Categories

http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/historical_categories.htm

Web Links
criteria for an active workload
The workload shall be created to ensure that the Profile Active Power Ratio (PAPR), determined as a result of a profile study, comes within 15% of the Profile Active Workload Ratio (PAWR), determined by running the workload on the study computers.

The active workload shall consist of workload fragments representative of the targeted profile.

PAPR = Pon/Psidle

PAWR = Pwork/Psidle

15% > |(PAPR - PAWR)|/PAPR (absolute values)

Criteria for an active workload
slide26

What is TEC?

  • TEC = (8760/1000)*(Poff*Toff + Psleep*Tsleep+ Pidle*Tidle + Psidle*Tsidle + Pwork*Twork)
  • 100% = Toff + Tsleep + Tidle + Tsidle + Twork
    • Toff Represents the percent time the system annually spends in the off state.
    • Tsleep Represents the percent time the system annually spends in the sleep.
    • Tidle Represents the percent time the system annually spends in the on state.
    • Tsidle Represents the percent time system is annually on and short idle (screen not blanked)
    • TworkRepresents the percent time system is annually on and active (screen not blanked)
slide27

Computer States

  • Off: Defined by ACPI G2/S5 state.
  • Sleep: Defined by an ACPI G1 state (S1, S2, S3 or S4 state) which provides a 5 second resume latency
  • Long Idle: Defined as being in an on state (G0/S0 state) for 15 minutes, performing any work, and the screen being blanked.
  • Short Idle: Defined as being in an on state, not being in a sleep state, not performing any work (after a short interval of idleness), and the screen being on.
  • Work: Defined as being in an on state and performing some useful work as determined by the majority profile.
slide28

Power Study

  • Log “On Power” (Pon) for study period on Study machines with selected profile users
    • Measure Poff, Psleep, Pidle, Psidle
  • Calculate True TEC for each machine in the study
  • TECtrue= (8760/1000)*(Poff*Toff + Psleep*Tsleep+ Pon*Ton)
    • Where Pon is the average on power measured in the power study
    • Where Ton = Tidle + Tsidle + Twork
      • Derived from the Duty Cycle Study
  • Calculate the Estimated TEC for each machine in the study
  • TECestimate = (8760/1000)*[Poff*Toff + Psleep*Tsleep+ Pidle*Tidle + Psidle*(Tsidle + Twork)]
  • Average the TECs and calculate the Error
    • %Error = [Avg(TECtrue) - Avg(TECestimate)] /Avg(TECtrue)
  • If %Error < 15% then
    • Psidle can substitute for Pwork for that profile
  • Else
    • Profile will require an Active workload to be created to measure Pwork
slide29

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