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Disease Detectives by : Angie Bowen. Hepatitis. "Hepatitis" means inflammation of the liver and also refers to a group of viral infections that affect the liver . The most common types are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C.

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hepatitis
Hepatitis

"Hepatitis" means inflammation of the liver and also refers to a group of viral infections that affect the liver . The most common types are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C.

Viral hepatitis is the leading cause of liver cancer and the most common reason for liver transplantation. An estimated 4.4 million Americans are living with chronic hepatitis.

antibiotics
Antibiotics
  • Although antibiotics have many beneficial effects, using them has contributed to the problem of antibiotic resistance, which means that certain bacteria are no longer killed by these medicines.
  • For example, taking antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk of getting an infection later that resists antibiotic treatment.
  • When you use antibiotics appropriately, you do the best for your health, your family's health, and the health of those around you.
question
Question

Antibiotics fight infections caused by

  • a. Viruses
  • b. Bacteria
  • c. Viruses and Bacteria
answer
Answer
  • b. Bacteria
question1
Question

Bacteria are germs that cause colds and flu.

a. True

b. False

answer1
Answer
  • b. False
common health problems
Common Health Problems
  • Strep throat is a disease caused by tiny ball-shaped bacteria called group A streptococci .
  • The Flu is caused by the influenza virus. It's an infection that causes a fever, chills, cough, body aches, headaches, and sometimes earaches or sinus problems.
  • A Cold is an infection of the upper respiratory system. This just means it affects the nose, throat, and ears. A cold virus gets inside your body and makes you sick.
question2
Question

Which of these illnesses should be treated with antibiotics?

a. Runny Nose

b. The Flu

c. Cold

d. Strep Throat

answer2
Answer
  • d. Strep Throat
question3
Question

Bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics.

  • a. True
  • b. False
answer3
Answer
  • a. True
flu prevention
Flu Prevention

What is the number one way to prevent the spread of flu?

  • Answer: HANDWASHING
question4
Question

In order to properly wash your hands before or after handling food, exactly what is the minimum amount of time you should wash your hands under running water?

  • a. 10 seconds
  • b. 20 seconds
  • c. 45 seconds
  • d. 1 minute
answer4
Answer
  • b. 20 seconds
question5
Question

I can increase antibiotic-resistant infections when I (Hint: More than one may apply)

  • a. Take an antibiotic for a viral infection
  • b. Take the full dose of an antibiotic when it is prescribed
  • c. Take an antibiotic prescribed for someone else
  • d. Take my antibiotic exactly as my pediatrician or doctor tells me to
answer5
Answer
  • a. Take an antibiotic for a viral infection
  • c. Take an antibiotic prescribed for someone else
question6
Question
  • What can happen if I get an antibiotic-resistant infection? (Hint: More than one may apply)
  • a. I may have a longer-lasting illness
  • b. I may have to visit my doctor more
  • c. I may get better quicker
  • d. I may need more costly medicine that can cause side effects
answer6
Answer
  • a. I may have a longer-lasting illness
  • b. I may have to visit my doctor more
  • d. I may need more costly medicine that can cause side effects
question7
Question

Alexander Fleming discovered the first antibiotic in 1927. What was the antibiotic called?

  • a. Mold
  • b. Penicillin
  • c. Vancomycin
  • d. Doxycycline
answer7
Answer
  • b. Penicillin
question8
Question

You should ride your bicycle

  • a. On the left side of the road against the flow of traffic
  • b. In the middle of the road
  • c. On the right side of the road with the direction of traffic
  • d. On the sidewalk
answer8
Answer
  • c. On the right side of the road with the direction of traffic
question9
Question

Also before crossing a road, you should look _____________ for traffic.

  • a. Left-right
  • b. Left-right-left
  • c. Directly in front of you
  • d. Right-left
  • e. Right-left-right
answer9
Answer
  • b. Left-right-left
question10
Question
  • Riding your bike in the dark is dangerous. If you have to ride at night, list two (2) things you can do to make yourself more visible to drivers.
answer10
Answer
  • Wear clothing that reflects the light
  • make sure your bike has a front headlight that is bright and white
  • equip your bike with reflections on the front and rear
  • equip your bike with reflections on the pedals and wheels
question11
Question

Is it OK to ride a bicycle while listening to audio headphones? Why or why not?

answer11
Answer

NO!

  • Can’t hear traffic noises very well
  • It’s against the law
slide32

FOOD SAFETY

People usually become infected with foodborne illness when they eat a contaminated food item.

The food item can be contaminated with bacteria or a virus, and many foodborne illnesses are caused by foodborne bacteria. Foodborne bacteria can’t be seen, smelled or tasted, and they can make you sick.

Food safety is important for you and your family, and it is important for you to have safe food habits every day. You can reduce your risk of eating foods infected with foodborne bacteria by following the 4 rules of food safety:

1. CLEAN: Wash your hands and surfaces often

2. SEPARATE: Don't cross-contaminate! Cross-contamination is the scientific word for how bacteria can be spread from one food product or surface to another.

3. COOK: Cook food to its proper temperature

4. CHILL: Refrigerate food promptly

match each of the food safety tips with the correct food safety rule
Match each of the food safety tips with the correct food safety rule.
  • Rinse fresh fruits and vegetables under running tap water, including those with skins and rinds that are not eaten.

CLEAN

  • Divide large amounts of leftovers into shallow containers for quicker cooling in the refrigerator.

CHILL

  • Use one cutting board for fresh produce and a separate one for raw meat, poultry and seafood.

SEPARATE

  • Make sure there are no cold spots in food (where bacteria can survive) when cooking them in a microwave oven. For best results, cover food, stir and rotate for even cooking. If there is no turntable, rotate the dish by hand once or twice during cooking.

COOK

question12
Question

Before you open a can of food, you should

  • a. Take the label off so it doesn't get in the way
  • b. Wash the lid of the can
  • c. Turn the can upside down
  • d. Shake the can to hear what's inside
answer12
Answer
  • b. Wash the lid of the can
question13
Question

Which of the following ways is NOT a safe way to defrost raw meat?

  • a. In the refrigerator
  • b. On the counter
  • c. In the microwave
  • d. All of the above
answer13
Answer
  • b. On the counter
question14
Question

How soon do leftovers have to be stored in the fridge?

  • a. Within 1 week
  • b. Within a day
  • c. Within 6 hours
  • d. Within 2 hours
answer14
Answer
  • d. Within 2 hours
question15
Question

To avoid cross contamination, where should raw meat and seafood be thawed in the fridge?

  • a. On the bottom shelf
  • b. On the top shelf
  • c. On the middle shelf
  • d. In the freezer
answer15
Answer
  • a. On the bottom shelf
question16
Question

Which of the following federal agencies is responsible for regulating meat and poultry products in the United States?

  • a. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture)
  • b. FDA (Food and Drug Administration)
  • c. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
  • d. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
answer16
Answer
  • a. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture)
true or false
TRUE OR FALSE
  • Refrigeration stops bacterial growth.

FALSE

  • The best way to keep the fridge cold is to fill it up with a lot of food.

FALSE

  • When shopping at the grocery store, you should pick up the cold and frozen items first, and then shop for the other foods, like dry goods.

FALSE

routes of transmission
Routes of Transmission

There are various pathways of infectious disease transmission including:

  • Contact Transmission: physical contact with infected objects or people
  • Waterborne Transmission: through contaminated water,
  • Foodborne Transmission: improper handling or cooking of food,
  • Airborne Transmission: occurs via droplets or dust
  • Vector Transmission: Mosquito bite gives you Malaria; tick bite gives you Lyme Disease
name that route
Name That Route!

E Coli makes you sick after not cooking your burger long enough?

  • (a) contact transmission
  • (b) airborne transmission
  • (c) foodborne transmission
  • (d) vector transmission
answer17
Answer

(c) foodborne transmission

name that route1
Name That Route!

Becoming sick after your friend who has the flu coughs and sneezes around you?

  • (a) contact transmission
  • (b) airborne transmission
  • (c) foodborne transmission
  • (d) vector transmission
answer18
Answer
  • (b) airborne transmission
name that route2
Name That Route!

Your sister has chicken pox. You use the phone after she does, and a few days later you also get chicken pox.

  • (a) contact transmission
  • (b) airborne transmission
  • (c) foodborne transmission
  • (d) vector transmission
answer19
Answer
  • (a) contact transmission
name that route3
Name That Route!

You are hiking in the mountains and you get the West Nile Virus from a mosquito bite.

  • (a) contact transmission
  • (b) airborne transmission
  • (c) foodborne transmission
  • (d) vector transmission
answer20
Answer
  • (d) vector transmission
who remembers rice
Who Remembers RICE?
  • Treatment of broken bones or sprained joints sometimes requires a method known as RICE. Who remembers what RICE stands for?
r i c e
R.I.C.E.
  • Rest
  • Immobilize
  • Cold
  • Elevate
question17
Question

What is a surface called that a pathogen can survive on and then infect another host ?

  • A) Vector
  • B) Agent
  • C) Fomite
answer21
Answer
  • C) Fomite
question18
Question

What is Zoonosis?

  • A) a disease that causes its victims to adapt “animal-like” behavior
  • B) when an animal is infected by a human disease
  • C) when a human is infected by an animal disease
  • D) another word for “vector”
answer22
Answer
  • C) when a human is infected by an animal disease
question19
Question
  • Which of the following is NOT contagious?
  • A) Colds
  • B)Leukemia (A form of Cancer)
  • C) Influenza
  • D) Diptheria
answer23
Answer
  • B)Leukemia (A form of Cancer)
question20
Question

Which is waterborne disease that causes stomach pain and infections?

  • A) Smallpox
  • B) Cholera
  • C) Chickenpox
  • D) Measles
answer24
Answer
  • B) Cholera
think about this
Think About This…
  • Tuberculosis or “TB” is an infectious disease. It is caused by a bacterium that usually infects the lungs. TB is spread through the air from person to person. When someone with TB coughs, sneezes, or otherwise sprays TB germs from their lungs, someone else can breathe them in and get infected with TB. Answer the following questions on the next pages.
where do tb case rates tend to be higher
Where do TB case rates tend to be higher?

A. In the Northeast part of the country.B. In the Southeast part of the country.C. Case rates are basically the same everywhere.

answer25
Answer
  • B. In the Southeast part of the country.
how many tb cases were there in the united states in 2001
How many TB cases were there in the United States in 2001?
  • A. About 10,000B. About 25,000C. About 16,000D. Cannot tell
answer26
Answer
  • C. About 16,000
question21
Question
  • Based on what you now know about TB, what is the likely treatment?
  • Hint…TB is a Bacterial Infection
answer27
Answer
  • Antibiotics
question22
Question
  • What would be some preventative measures to avoid contracting TB?
  • Do not spend long periods of time in stuffy, enclosed rooms with anyone who has active TB
  • Use protective measures, such as face masks
name that route4
Name That Route!
  • What are two possible routes of transmission for TB?
  • Contact Transmission
  • Airborne Transmission
rabies
Rabies
  • Rabies is a disease that affects the brain. It´s usually passed from animal to animal but it can be passed from animals to people. It´s caused by a virus.
  • Any mammal can get rabies.
  • In the United States, raccoons, skunks, foxes and bats are the main animals that get rabies.
question23
Question

What causes rabies?

  • (a) a parasite
  • (b) a virus
  • (c) a bacteria
  • (d) it is unknown
answer28
Answer
  • (b) a virus
question24
Question

Which of these animals can get rabies?

  • (a) a frog
  • (b) an alligator
  • (c) a bat
  • (d) a snake
answer29
Answer
  • (c) a bat
question25
Question

If you see an animal acting strangely, what should you do?

  • (a) Call your local animal control officer to catch and help the animal
  • (b) Try to catch it to see if you can help
  • (c) Just walk away
  • (d) Try to corner it into a safe place until help arrives
answer30
Answer
  • (a) Call your local animal control officer to catch and help the animal
question26
Question

Rabies is spread by

  • (a) blood
  • (b) tears
  • (c) saliva
  • (d) all of the above
answer31
Answer
  • (c) saliva
question27
Question

If someone is bitten by an animal with rabies, how long before rabies develops?

  • (a) one or two hours
  • (b) one or two days
  • (c) one or two weeks
  • (d) one or two months
answer32
Answer
  • (d) one or two months
question28
Question

Who knows the name of the scientist that invented vaccinations?????

  • A) Albert Einstein
  • B) Edward Jenner
  • C) Nicola Tesla
  • D) Marie Curie
answer33
Answer
  • B) Edward Jenner
risk attack rate
Risk/Attack Rate
  • You may have to prove that you understand the risk of something happening or prove that something at dinner made several people sick.
  • For example, remember the example we did with the lizard at the zoo. Most of the children who pet the lizard became sick. How would you show that on paper?
risk attack rate1
Risk/Attack Rate
  • 400 people attended a special awards dinner
  • Some persons became sick. The suspected culprit was the potato salad. The population at the dinner was then surveyed to determine who became sick.
risk attack rate2
Risk/Attack Rate
  • 180 guests ate the potato salad. Of the 180, 150 became sick.
  • 220 guests DID NOT eat the potato salad. Out of the 220, 50 became sick. Make a table to show this information.
risk attack rate3
Risk/Attack Rate
  • So you could say 150 people out of 180 became sick after eating the salad. You would show this as 150/180
  • You could also say 50 people out of 220 became sick who did not eat the salad. You would show this as 50/220.
risk attack rate4
Risk/Attack Rate
  • If you have calculators, you could find the percentage of people who became sick from eating the salad. Just use your information 150/180 and use the calculator to divide.
  • 150 divided by 180 = .833

To change to a percent, move the decimal TWO PLACES to the right, so it will become what?

83%

risk attack rate5
Risk/Attack Rate
  • So 83% of people who ate the salad became sick. You have proven this with your calculations.
  • You can also find the percentage of people who became sick and did not eat the salad by doing the same thing.
  • Number of sick= 50; total number in that group = 220 (170 + 50)
risk attack rate6
Risk/Attack Rate

Number of sick= 50; total number in that group = 220 So how would you show this?

50/220 = .227

So the percentage who became sick for the unexposed group is

23%

let s try that again
Let’s Try That Again
  • 100 guests attended a dinner party. After the party, 12 became sick. A total of 33 guests had fish for dinner. Of the 12 sick guests, 8 ate the fish for dinner, 4 did not.
  • Find the percent ofpeople who became sick and ate the fish and the percent of people who became sick but did not eat the fish.
  • First, create a table to show your given information
risk attack rate7
Risk/Attack Rate

The risk for who ate fish and became sick can be found by writing the ratio 8/33 (8 people out of 33)

8 divided by 33 = .242 = 24%

risk attack rate8
Risk/Attack Rate
  • The percentage of people who did not eat fish but became sick can be found by dividing number of sick by total number in the group.
  • 4/67 = .059 or 6% (round up)
now try this
Now Try This…

A study was done on 200 people to see if smoking cigarettes contributed to any health problems. Name two health problems that could be caused from smoking.

possible answers
Possible Answers….
  • Lung cancer
  • Chronic lung diseases (COPD, Emphysema, etc)
  • Heart disease
  • Vascular disease (poor circulation)
risk attack rate9
Risk/Attack Rate
  • Out of the 200 people surveyed, 100 smoked cigarettes and 100 did not. Out of the 100 who smoked, 20 developed lung cancer. Out of the 100 who did not smoke, 1 developed lung cancer.
  • First, make a table to show this information
risk attack rate10
Risk/Attack Rate
  • Now, determine the percentage of people who developing lung cancer with smoking, and percentage who developed lung cancer if they don’t.
  • Smoker= 20/100= .2 = 20%
  • Non-Smoker = 1/100= .01= 1%
try this
Try this…..
  • Identify 3 kinds of health risks that can be present at a public swimming pool
  • and two ways to prevent each risk.
public swimming pool
Public Swimming Pool

Risk

Prevention

  • Drowning
  • Falls/Trips/Slips
  • Water Borne Illness
  • Sunburn
  • Swim Lessons, Flotation Device, Make sure life guard or adult is present
  • Don’t run, Pick up tripping hazards
  • Maintain chlorine levels, use filtration system
  • Wear sunscreen, stay in shade or out of direct sun
match the picture with the risk factor
Match the Picture with the Risk Factor

Concussion

Lyme Disease

Heart Disease

more matching
More Matching

Rabies

Malaria

Asthma

match the disease or injury with a way to prevent it
Match the Disease or Injury with a way to Prevent it

Cook meat thoroughly

Wash Hands before Eating

Keep floors clutter free

match
Match
  • Lyme Disease
  • Influenza
  • Anthrax
  • Rabies
  • Diabetes
  • Giardiasis
  • Plague
  • Virus
  • Bacteria
  • Parasite
  • None of the Above
according to the figure which week was the flu most prevalent
According to the figure, which week was the flu most prevalent?

Week 35

Week 42

Week 1

Unable to determine

question29
Question

Where is lead-based paint found?

  • (a) Interior surfaces of houses built before 1978
  • (b) Exterior surfaces of houses built before 1978
  • (c) Interior surfaces of houses built before 2002
  • (d) Exterior surfaces of houses built before 2002
answer34
Answer
  • (a) Interior surfaces of houses built before 1978
question30
Question

What are good ways to remove old paint?

  • (a) Work in a contained area so that dust particles are isolated in a small work area.
  • (b) make it a family activity with the kids pitching in
  • (c) Torch burning
  • (d) Contain all dust with plastic sheeting
answer35
Answer
  • (d) Contain all dust with plastic sheeting