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Polar Deserts

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  1. Polar Deserts Meghan M & Julia Z 5th hour 10/20/08 Below: 6 arctic cartoon

  2. Geographical Location Antarctica Greenland Northern Canada Alaska Siberia Most locations extreme N/S Images (clockwise) 3- map of deserts,5-arctic ,7(all pics on bottom left)-arctic

  3. Tropic of Cancer Equator High mountains Polar ice Polar grassland (arctic tundra) Tropic of Capricorn Temperate grassland Tropical grassland (savanna) Chaparral Coniferous forest Temperate deciduous forest Tropical forest Desert Fig. 5-9, p. 106

  4. Temperature Average Annual Temperature (varies):-12.2 ºC- -28.1 ºC Temperature Range: varies from extreme negative temperatures to 10ºC Warmest Month Annual Temperature: 10 º C Above: 1-patterns on ground left from freeze/thaw on ice in Antarctica

  5. Average Annual Precipitation/ Limiting Factors • Polar deserts have an average annual precipitation of less than 25 cm a year. (MSN Encarta) • Usually between 15-25cm (MSN Encarta) • Global warming: • Since 1979, the size of the summer polar ice cap of the artic has shrunk more than 20 percent. • Average temperatures in Alaska, western Canada, and eastern Russia have risen at twice the global average. (www.nasa.gov) • Wind: Winds in polar deserts have a huge effect on weather. They bring storms, and visibility can be reduced to less than 100ft (www.NSIDC.org)

  6. Plants Types: Many species, not comparatively mostly ‘herbs, lichens (symbionts of algae and fungi), and mosses’ (2) see next slide for specific types Adaptations (2) Evergreen conifers can ‘tolerate’ extremely low temperatures Longer roots which allow maximum amount of nutrients to be absorbed Can tolerate much longer w/o food

  7. Plant Types of Polar Deserts

  8. Animals No more than 4% of Antarctica's land is capable of sustaining life. The Artic is more capable due to higher temperatures. • Polar bears (Artic) • Artic Foxes • Caribou (Artic) • Penguins (Antarctica) • Whales (Blue whale, Killer whale) • Narwhal • Seals (Harp Seal, Southern Elephant Seal) • Walrus • Atlantic Puffin • Fish • Krill (www.library.thinkquest.org)

  9. Animals • Polar Bears have white fur to match their surroundings; sharp, curved claws to cling to ice; 2 layers of fur and large amounts of stored fat to stay warm (blubber). • Artic Foxes have Thick fur, and a good supply of body fat; a low surface area to volume ratio which means less heat escapes the body; furry paws that allow it to walk on ice to search for food; an incredible sense of hearing so it can locate the position of its prey under the snow; the warmest fur of any mammal. • Caribou have large hoofs that spread widely to support the animals in deep snow and and function as paddles when they swim. • Penguinshave, in addition to blubber for warmth, tightly packed feathers that overlap to provide waterproofing. Their black and white colors make them almost invisible to predators from above and below the water. Also, their heavy bones allow them to stay underwater. (library.thinkquest.org)

  10. Animals • Whales: Blue whales depend on their thick layer of blubber for nourishment because of the scare amount of food in polar oceans. Killer whales are able to hold their breaths for around 10 minutes, enabling them to dive 100-200ft into the ocean to catch their prey. • Narwhal (artic) use their tusks to pierce through ice. • Seals have whiskers that are used to feel for fish in darkness. In the winter, the sun does not rise in the poles. • Walrushave a torpedo shaped body, used to swim quickly through the water. They also have a clear eyelid instead of a solid one to see, and protect its eye underwater. • Atlantic Puffin has spines in its beak to help it gather fish to give to its young. By using its tongue to push fish up against the spines, they can carry up to 30 fish at one time. (library.thinkquest.org)

  11. Biomass Pyramid/Degree of biodiversity The degree of biodiversity is low due to the extreme climate of polar deserts. The cold temperatures make survival difficult, especially for plants, which leave little for animals to consume. Since the plant population is low it narrows the rest of the biodiversity pyramid. Seals/Penguins

  12. Works Cited • http://www2.mcdaniel.edu/Biology/wildamerica/desert/desintro.htm 2. http://www.acia.uaf.edu/PDFs/ACIA_Science_Chapters_Final/ACIA_Ch07_Final.pdf (info on 2,3) 3. http://www.eduplace.com/science/hmsc/content/cricket/graphics/ckt_3c61_earth.jpg(image) 4.://www.cartoonstock.com/newscartoons/cartoonists/mly/lowres/mlyn203l.jpg 5. http://www.galapagostravel.com/Resources/svalbardicebergs.jpeg 6. www.cartoonstock.com 7. picasaweb.google.com/.../PuQqB0tKyC65HJ62Va • Jonkel, Charles J. "Polar Bear." MSN Encarta. 2008. Microsoft. 18 Oct. 2008 <http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761579749/polar_bear.html> • " Fact Bites. 2007. Rapid Intelligence. 17 Oct. 2008 <http://www.factbites.com/about_us.php>. • Ward, Paul. "Whales." Cool Antartica. 13 Oct. 2008. 17 Oct. 2008 <http://www.coolantarctica.com/antarctica>. • "RECENT WARMING OF ARCTIC MAY AFFECT WORLDWIDE CLIMATE." NASA Top Story. 23 Oct. 2003. NASA. 20 Oct. 2008 <http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/topstory>. • "Artic Climatory and Meteorology." National Snow and Ice Data Center. NSIDC. 17 Oct. 2008 <http://nsidc.org/arcticmet/factors/winds.html>. • "The Arctic & Its Animals." Animals of the Artic. 1998. ERCHA. 17 Oct. 2008 <http://library.thinkquest.org/3500/index.htm>.