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RECENT ADVANCES IN THE SPECTROSCOPY OF PLANETARY AND EXOPLANETARY ATMOSPHERES : WHAT IS OUT THERE ?. Hitran 2010 Pierre Drossart LESIA, Observatoire de Paris. Spectra of Giant Planets. Day side (Reflected sunlight). Thermal emission. XO-1b Tinetti et al, 2010. G. Kuiper, ApJ, 1947.

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recent advances in the spectroscopy of planetary and exoplanetary atmospheres what is out there

RECENT ADVANCES IN THE SPECTROSCOPY OF PLANETARY AND EXOPLANETARY ATMOSPHERES : WHAT IS OUT THERE ?

Hitran 2010

Pierre Drossart

LESIA, Observatoire de Paris

spectra of giant planets
Spectra of Giant Planets

Day side (Reflected sunlight)

Thermal emission

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

slide3
XO-1b Tinetti et al, 2010

G. Kuiper, ApJ, 1947

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

slide4
Line formation in Jupiter’s atmosphere (CH44 band)

Growth of line through vertical atmospheric integration

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

spectra of jupiter line formation in the thermal spectrum simulations at high low resolution
Spectra of Jupiter: Line formation in the thermal spectrumSimulations at high/low resolution

Radiative transfer in

Planetary atmospheres

nicmos transmission spectroscopy
NICMOS: transmission spectroscopy

XO-1b, terminator

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

Tinetti, et al., ApJ, 2010

thermal structure retrieval
Thermal structure retrieval

o Machalek et al., 2009

+ Knutson et al., 2007

1500 K

1000 K

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

Tinetti, et al., ApJ, 2010

non lte emissions of ch 4 in giant planets
Non-LTE emissions of CH4 in giant planets

ISO observation of CH4 non-LTE emission on Jupiter

Drossart et al, ESA-SP 427, 1999

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

ch 4 non lte emission in exoplanets
CH4 non LTE emission in exoplanets ?

Swain et al, Nature, 2010

HD189733b

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

cassini
Cassini

Saturn spectroscopic observations in the infrared

CIRS has two combined interferometers, operating in the far-infrared (10-600 cm-1) and mid-infrared (600-1400 cm-1).

VIMS is an imaging visible and near infrared spectrometer (0.3-5 micron)

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

slide11
Saturn 80°S at 100 and 300 km

C2H2

Flasar et al., Sci. 2005

C4H2 et CH3C2H

C2H6

Radiance (W cm-2 sr-1 / cm-1)

C3H8

CO2

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

slide12
Saturn at 80°S 100 and 300 km

CH4

CH3D

Flasar et al., Sci. 2005

Radiance (W cm-2 sr-1 / cm-1)

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

first results from herschel in the solar system

First results from Herschel in the solar system

First publications in Astronomy & Astrophysics – May 2010

instruments et observations
Instruments et observations

__

  • Observatory mode  access from proposals
    • “Key Programs” (– x 100 h, “legacy”), priority
    • normal programs (AO 20 may 2010)

___

__

___

_____

__

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

neptune spectrum from pacs
Neptune spectrum from PACS

Lellouch et al., A&A 2010

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

methane in the stratosphere of neptune
Methane in the stratosphere of Neptune

Lellouch et al. A & A 2010

Orton, Encrenaz et al. 2007

venus atmosphere
Venus atmosphere
  • Venus Express observations

A new start in Venus atmosphere observations after a long gap since Venera 15 and Vega russian missions

Next mission Akatsuki (Jaxa)

Launched on May 20

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

venus nir day side spectrum
Venus NIR day side spectrum

Venus Express/VIRTIS spectra in the NIR (day side)

Most of the absorptions : CO2 !

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

depression in the polar region
Depression in the polar region

Grey are VMC images

N. Ignatiev

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

Ignatiev et al., JGRE 2009

telluric planets venus thermal emission in the dark side
Telluric planets : Venus thermal emission in the dark side
  • Thermal emission originating from the 0-45 km altitude range in spectral windows
  • Accurate knowledge of CO2 opacity is crucial
    • Weak allowed bands
    • Pressure-induced bands
    • Far wing line shape
  • Deep atmosphere of Venus

Challenge for spectroscopy : CO2 up to 90 bars, 450 K at the surface

Database : HITEMP, CDSD-750

VIRTIS-Mspectrum

H2O

CO2

H2O

H2O

CO2

CO2

CO2

H2O

1.0 m

1.27 m

1.18 m

1.74 m

2.3 m

1.10 m

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

slide21
Venus nightside windows2.3 m
  • CFHT/FTS observations (Res = 0.15 cm-1) [Taylor et al. 1997]
  • Altitude range: 26-45 km
  • Absorbers: CO2, H2O, HDO, CO, OCS, SO2, HF

CO2

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

deep atmosphere of venus by virtis venus express
Deep atmosphere of Venus by VIRTIS/Venus Express

CO2

CO H2O HDO OCS SO2

Marq et al., JGRE, 2008

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

slide23
Venus day side observations at 4.3 micron :

CO2non – LTE emissions

Gilli, Lopez-Valverde et al., JGRE 2009

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

gravity waves observed in co 2 non lte emission of venus
Gravity waves observed in CO2 non-LTE emission of Venus

Day side up/night side down

Center on South pole

Polar vortex in red

Garcia et al., JGRE, 2009

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

o 2 intensity night side emission of venus at 1 27 micron
O2 intensity : night side emission of Venus at 1.27 micron

Mean vertical

brightness = 0.5 MR

1.27 micron emission of Venus

Gérard et al., Icarus, 2009

11/09/2014

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

25/20

slide26
Piccioni et al., PNAS, 2008

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

mars exploration in the xxi th century
Mars exploration in the XXIth century

The War of the Worlds : the Revenge

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (2006)

Coming soon…

Mars Science Laboratory (2011)

Mars Trace Gas Orbiter (2016)

Mars Odyssey

(2002)

Mars Express (2003)

Mars Exploration rovers (2003)

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

slide28
The infrared spectrum of Martian atmosphere

Solar reflected Thermal

CO2 H2O

CO CO2

Hydrated

silicates

CO2 CO2

Reflected sunlight -> mineralogy

Thermal emission -> T(z), winds

ISO-SWS Lellouch et al., 2000

slide29
The 1237-1243 cm-1 spectrum of Mars(TEXES, IRTF)All lines identified down to depths of 0.3%S/N > 1000 in the continuum

H2O2, 10-7

synthetic

TEXES data

slide30
First IR detection of H2O2 on Mars

H2O2 and CO2 lines at 1241.6 cm-1

H2O2

H2O2

CO2

Encrenaz et al. Icarus 2004

mars trace gas orbiter nasa esa 2016
Mars Trace Gas OrbiterNASA / ESA 2016
  • Science objectives
    • Detection of trace molecules CH4, C2H2, C2H6, NO2, N2O, H2S, SO2, H2O, O3, isotopologues
      • Determine the type of activiy : geological, or biological from the molecular ratio
      • Characterize spatial and temporal variations
      • Find the correlations between trace species to constrain the chemistry
    • Localize the sources
      • Trace the origin of gases
      • Determine uncertainty of a landing mission for EXOMARS

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

some trace gases to search for with tgo nadir and limb observations
Some trace gases to search for with TGOnadir and limb observations
  • The spectral domain has been optimized for several simultaneous gas detection
  • Sensitivity to methane
      • 1ppb in 6 s  50 km2 cartography
      • 50 ppt in solar occultation mode for detection
conclusions about exo planetary atmospheres spectroscopy
Conclusions about (exo)planetary atmospheres spectroscopy

What is out there ?

At first order : CO2 , CH4 , H2O , CO

… but we still do not fully understand the spectroscopy of these molecules!

  • Isotopes,
  • line shapes,
  • CIA,
  • line mixing,
  • relaxation coefficients,
  • etc.

Trace constituents

Telluric planets : H2O2, OH, H2CO

Giant planets : NH3, PH3, H2S

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

acknowledgements to
Acknowledgements to
  • Bruno Bézard
  • Régis Courtin
  • Emmanuel Lellouch
  • Dominique Bockelee
  • Giovanna Tinetti
  • Athena Coustenis
  • Thérèse Encrenaz
  • Giuseppe Piccioni
  • Miguel Lopez-Valverde
  • Raphaël Garcia

Hitran 2010 - Cambridge

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