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Plate Tectonics. Chapter 4. Section 1 Vocabulary. Inside the Earth Crust Mantle Core Lithosphere Asthenosphere Mesosphere Tectonic Plate. The composition of the earth. The Crust 5-100km thick Thinnest layer Two types Continental Oceanic Made of…. The composition of the earth.

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Plate tectonics

Plate Tectonics

Chapter 4


Section 1 vocabulary
Section 1 Vocabulary

  • Inside the Earth

    • Crust

    • Mantle

    • Core

    • Lithosphere

    • Asthenosphere

    • Mesosphere

    • Tectonic Plate


The composition of the earth
The composition of the earth

  • The Crust

    • 5-100km thick

    • Thinnest layer

  • Two types

    • Continental

    • Oceanic

    • Made of…


The composition of the earth1
The composition of the earth

  • The Mantle

    • Thicker

    • Most of the mass

  • Crust too thick

  • Observations

  • Ocean floor

  • Made of…


The composition of the earth2
The Composition of the earth

  • The Core

    • Mantle to the core

    • Made of…

    • Not made of..

  • 1/3 of the Earth’s mass


The physical structure of the earth
The Physical structure of the earth

  • Five layers

  • Inner Core

    • Solid, dense

  • Outer Core

    • Liquid layer

  • Mesosphere

    • Strong

  • Asthenosphere

    • Plastic layer

  • Lithosphere

    • Tectonic plates


Tectonic plates
Tectonic plates

  • Names of the plates

  • Fit together

  • Difference

    • Ocean

    • Continent

  • Plates include…

  • Like ice cubes


Mapping of the earth s interior
Mapping of the earth’s interior

  • Never drilled through the crust

  • Seismic waves

  • Seismographs


Section 2 vocabulary
Section 2 Vocabulary

  • Restless Continents

    • Continental Drift

    • Sea-floor Spreading


Wegener s continental drift hypothesis
Wegener’s Continental Drift hypothesis

  • Alfred Wegener

    • Continental Drift

    • Fit together

    • Similar types of rocks and climatic conditions


The breakup of pangaea
The breakup of pangaea

  • Observations

  • Single, huge continent (supercontinent)

  • 245 million years ago

  • Laurasia and Gondwana (180 million years ago)


Section 3 vocabulary
Section 3 Vocabulary

  • The Theory of Plate Tectonics

    • Plate tectonics

    • Convergent Boundary

    • Divergent Boundary

    • Transform Boundary


Tectonic plate boundaries
Tectonic Plate Boundaries

  • Plates Touch

  • Three Types

    • Convergent Boundary

    • Divergent Boundary

    • Transform Boundary

  • How they move

  • earthquakes


Convergent boundary
Convergent Boundary

  • Collide

  • Kind of crust

  • Three Types


Divergent boundary
Divergent Boundary

  • Separate

  • New Sea Floor

  • Mid-Ocean Ridges


Transform boundaries
Transform Boundaries

  • Slide Past Each other horizontally

  • San Andreas Fault


Possible causes of tectonic plate motion
Possible Causes of tectonic Plate Motion

  • Plate Tectonic Theory

  • Solid Rock Flows

  • Changes in Density

  • Thermal Energy

  • Three possible causes


Three causes of tectonic plate motion
Three Causes of tectonic Plate Motion

  • Ridge Push

  • Convection

  • Slab Pull


Tracking tectonic plate motion
Tracking Tectonic Plate motion

  • Type and Shape of the plate

  • Interacts with Plates

  • So Slow and Gradual

  • GPS

  • Radio Signals


Section 4
Section 4

  • Deforming the Earth’s Crust Vocabulary

    • Compression

    • Tension

    • Folding

    • Fault

    • Uplift

    • Subsidence


Deformation
Deformation

  • Spaghetti

    • Bending

    • Breaking

  • Rock Layers

  • Stress


Compression and tension
Compression and tension

  • Compression

    • Squeezed or Collided

    • Convergent

    • Mountain Ranges

  • Tension

    • Stretch

    • Divergent

    • Mid-Ocean Ridge


Folding
Folding

  • Bending of Rock Layers

    • Horizontal layers

  • Types of Folds

    • Anticlines

    • Synclines

    • Monocline

    • Different sizes


Faulting
Faulting

  • Stress is applied

  • Fault Blocks

  • Hanging wall and footwall

  • Two Types

    • Normal fault

    • Reverse fault


Two types of faults
Two Types of faults

  • Normal fault

    • Tension Pull Rocks Apart

  • Reverse Faults

    • Compression that pushes rocks together


Telling the difference between faults
Telling the Difference between faults

  • Look at the order of sedimentary rock layers

  • Compare the two dark layers


Strike slip faults
Strike-Slip Faults

  • Third Type of Fault

  • Opposing forces cause rock to break and move horizontally

  • Move left or right

  • San Andreas Fault


Plate tectonics and mountain building
Plate Tectonics and Mountain Building

  • Plates Collide

    • Land features start as…

    • Can become …

    • Mountains exist

    • Andes Mountains

    • Compression or tension


Three different kinds of mountains
Three different kinds of mountains

  • Folded Mountains

    • Highest

    • Convergent (collide)

    • Appalachian Mtns.

  • Fault-Block Mountains

    • Tension

    • Drop Down

    • Tilted up

  • Volcanic Mountains

    • Major (Convergent)

    • Sinks

    • Islands

    • Ring of Fire


Uplift and subsidence
Uplift and Subsidence

  • Vertical Movements

    • Uplift

      • Higher elevations

      • May or May Not Be Deformed

    • Subsidence

      • Sinking

      • No Deformation


Uplift and sibsidence
Uplift and Sibsidence

  • Uplifting of Depressed Rock

    • Formation of Mtns.

    • Without Deformation

      • Rebound

      • Weight removed

  • Subsidence of Cooler Rock

    • Hot More Space

    • Less Volume (Subsides)

  • Tectonic Letdown

    • Stretched rift zones

    • Stress


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