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Carnivorous Plants. Carnivorous Plants Why be carnivorous?. Carnivorous Plants Why be carnivorous? Obtain nutrients in poor environments. Carnivorous Plants Why be carnivorous? Obtain nutrients in poor environments Often N. Carnivorous Plants Why be carnivorous? Obtain nutrients in

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slide2

Carnivorous Plants

Why be carnivorous?

slide3

Carnivorous Plants

Why be carnivorous?

Obtain nutrients in

poor environments

slide4

Carnivorous Plants

Why be carnivorous?

Obtain nutrients in

poor environments

Often N

slide5

Carnivorous Plants

Why be carnivorous?

Obtain nutrients in

poor environments

Often N

> 600 spp in 6

different orders

slide6

Carnivorous Plants

Why be carnivorous?

Obtain nutrients in

poor environments

Often N

> 600 spp in 6

different orders

> 12 genera

slide7

Carnivorous Plants

Why be carnivorous?

Obtain nutrients in

poor environments

Often N

> 600 spp in 6

different orders

> 12 genera

Evolved 6 times

independently

slide8

Carnivorous Plants

Why be carnivorous?

Obtain nutrients in

poor environments

Often N

> 600 spp in 6

different orders

> 12 genera

Evolved 6 times

independently

Also have >300

paracarnivorous spp

slide9

Carnivorous Plants

Why be carnivorous?

Obtain nutrients in

poor environments

Often N

> 600 spp in 6

different orders

> 12 genera

Evolved 6 times

independently

Also have >300

paracarnivorous spp

Described by

Darwin (1875)

Insectivorous Plants

slide10

Carnivorous Plants

Why be carnivorous?

Obtain nutrients in poor environments

Often N

> 600 spp in 5

different orders

> 12 genera

Evolved 6 times

independently

Also have >300

paracarnivorous spp

Described by

Darwin (1875)

Insectivorous Plants

Adaptation to nutrient

slide11

Carnivorous Plants

Obtain nutrients in poor environments

Often N

> 600 spp in 5

different orders

> 12 genera

Evolved 6 times

independently

Also have >300

paracarnivorous spp

Described by

Darwin (1875)

Insectivorous Plants

Adaptation to nutrient\

Only if lots of light

& water = bogs

slide12

Carnivorous Plants

Why be carnivorous?

Obtain nutrients in

poor environments

How to become

carnivorous?

slide13

Carnivorous Plants

How to become carnivorous?

1: catch prey

slide14

Carnivorous Plants

  • How to become carnivorous?
  • 1: catch prey
  • mainly insects
slide15

Carnivorous Plants

  • How to become carnivorous?
  • 1: catch prey
  • mainly insects
  • 2: digest prey
slide16

Carnivorous Plants

  • How to become carnivorous?
  • 1: catch prey
  • mainly insects
  • 2: digest prey
  • 3: absorb nutrients
slide17

Carnivorous Plants

  • How to become carnivorous?
  • 1: catch prey
  • mainly insects
  • 2: digest prey
  • 3: absorb nutrients
  • 4: kill competing
  • Bacteria & fungi
slide18

Carnivorous Plants

  • How to become carnivorous?
  • 1: catch prey
  • mainly insects
  • 2: digest prey
  • 3: absorb nutrients
  • 4: kill competing
  • Bacteria & fungi
  • How to avoid eating
  • Pollinators?
slide19

Catching Prey

5 basic trapping mechanisms

1: Pitfall traps (e.g.pitcher plants)

trap prey in a rolled leaf.

slide20

Catching Prey

  • 5 basic trapping mechanisms
  • 1: Pitfall traps (e.g.pitcher plants)
  • trap prey in a rolled leaf.
  • evolved independently ≥ 4 x
slide21

Catching Prey

  • 5 basic trapping mechanisms
  • 1: Pitfall traps (e.g.pitcher plants)
  • trap prey in a rolled leaf.
  • evolved independently ≥ 4 x
  • recently discovered a 2 liter
  • Pitcher in Phillipines
slide22

Catching Prey

  • 5 basic trapping mechanisms
  • 1: Pitfall traps (e.g.pitcher plants)
  • trap prey in a rolled leaf.
  • evolved independently ≥ 4 x
  • recently discovered a 2 liter
  • Pitcher in Phillipines
  • Similar spp live in Indonesia
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NJCaG4tOaAU&feature=related
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=trWzDlRvv1M&feature=player_embedded#!
slide23

Catching Prey

  • 5 basic trapping mechanisms
  • 1: Pitfall traps (e.g.pitcher plants)
  • trap prey in a rolled leaf.
  • evolved independently ≥ 4 x
  • fuse leaves & alter shape to form
  • cup trapping rain and prey
slide24

Catching Prey

  • 5 basic trapping mechanisms
  • 1: Pitfall traps (e.g.pitcher plants)
  • trap prey in a rolled leaf.
  • evolved independently ≥ 4 x
  • fuse leaves & alter shape to form
  • cup trapping rain and prey
  • rely on bacteria for digestion
slide25

Catching Prey

  • fuse leaves & alter shape to form
  • cup trapping rain and prey
  • rely on bacteria for digestion
  • Others protect opening
slide26

Catching Prey

  • fuse leaves & alter shape to form
  • cup trapping rain and prey
  • rely on bacteria for digestion
  • Others protect opening
  • Add enzymes to cup solution
slide27

Catching Prey

  • fuse leaves & alter shape to form
  • cup trapping rain and prey
  • rely on bacteria for digestion
  • Others protect opening
  • Add enzymes to cup solution
  • Absorb nutrients @ cup surface
slide28

Catching Prey

5 basic trapping mechanisms

1: Pitfall traps (pitcher plants

trap prey in a rolled leaf.

2:Flypaper traps (sundews)

use a sticky mucilage

http://www.flickr.com/photos/12289718@N00/3685555296

slide29

Catching Prey

5 basic trapping mechanisms

1: Pitfall traps (pitcher plants)

trap prey in a rolled leaf.

2:Flypaper traps (sundews)

use a sticky mucilage

Evolved independently ≥ 5 x

slide30

Catching Prey

Stalked glands secrete mucilage & enzymes

Sessile glands absorb nutrients

slide31

Catching Prey

Stalked glands secrete mucilage & enzymes

Sessile glands absorb nutrients

Have flowers on long stalks to avoid trapping pollinators

slide32

Catching Prey

5 basic trapping mechanisms

1: Pitfall traps (pitcher plants) trap prey in a rolled leaf.

2:Flypaper traps (sundews) use a sticky mucilage

3: Bladder traps vacuum in prey:

only Utricularia, but 214 spp

slide33

Catching Prey

  • 5 basic trapping mechanisms
  • 1: Pitfall traps (pitcher plants) trap prey in a rolled leaf.
  • 2:Flypaper traps (sundews) use a sticky mucilage
  • 3: Bladder traps vacuum in prey: only Utricularia
  • bladders sealed w hinged doors expel ions
slide34

5 basic trapping mechanisms

  • 1: Pitfall traps (pitcher plants) trap prey in a rolled leaf.
  • 2:Flypaper traps (sundews) use a sticky mucilage
  • 3: Bladder traps vacuum in prey: only Utricularia
  • bladders sealed w hinged doors expel water
  • Osmosis creates vacuum
slide35

5 basic trapping mechanisms

  • 1: Pitfall traps (pitcher plants) trap prey in a rolled leaf.
  • 2:Flypaper traps (sundews) use a sticky mucilage
  • 3: Bladder traps vacuum in prey: only Utricularia
  • bladders sealed w hinged doors expel water
  • Osmosis creates vacuum
  • Trigger hairs @ door release vacuum when touched
slide36

Bladder traps vacuum in prey: only Utricularia

  • bladders sealed w hinged doors expel water
  • Osmosis creates vacuum
  • Trigger hairs @ door release vac when touched
  • Sucks prey into digestive bladder
slide37

Bladder traps vacuum in prey: only Utricularia

  • bladders sealed w hinged doors expel water
  • Osmosis creates vacuum
  • Trigger hairs @ door release vac when touched
  • Sucks prey into digestive bladder
  • Flowers on long stalks
slide38

5 basic trapping mechanisms

  • 1: Pitfall traps (pitcher plants) trap prey in a rolled leaf.
  • 2:Flypaper traps (sundews) use a sticky mucilage
  • 3: Bladder traps vacuum in prey
  • 4: Lobster-pot traps trap prey
  • chamber is easy to enter, hard to exit
slide39

5 basic trapping mechanisms

  • 4: Lobster-pot traps trap prey
  • chamber is easy to enter, hard to exit
  • inward-pointing hairs
  • prevent escape
slide40

5 basic trapping mechanisms

  • 1: Pitfall traps (pitcher plants) trap prey in a rolled leaf.
  • 2:Flypaper traps (sundews) use a sticky mucilage
  • 3: Bladder traps vacuum in prey
  • 4: Lobster-pot traps trap prey
  • 5: Snap traps use rapid leaf
  • Movements
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ktIGVtKdgwo&feature=channel
slide41

5 basic trapping mechanisms

  • Snap traps use rapid leaf Movements
  • two stimuli are required, 0.5 to 30 seconds apart
slide42

5 basic trapping mechanisms

  • Snap traps use rapid leaf Movements
  • two stimuli are required, 0.5 to 30 seconds apart
  • Touched trigger hair cells open channels, generating an action potential that propagates to midrib cells
slide43

5 basic trapping mechanisms

  • Snap traps use rapid leaf Movements
  • two stimuli are required, 0.5 to 30 seconds apart
  • Touched trigger hair cells
  • open channels, generating
  • an action potential that
  • propagates to midrib cells
  • These respond by pumping
  • out ions, resulting in rapid
  • growth
slide44

5 basic trapping mechanisms

  • Touched trigger hair cells open channels, generating an action potential that propagates to midrib cells
  • These respond by pumping
  • out ions, resulting in rapid
  • growth
  • Open lobes are convex,
  • Closed are concave
slide45

5 basic trapping mechanisms

  • Touched trigger hair cells open channels, generating an action potential that propagates to midrib cells
  • These respond by pumping
  • out ions, resulting in rapid
  • growth
  • Open lobes are convex,
  • Closed are concave
  • AP triggers switch
slide46

5 basic trapping mechanisms

  • Touched trigger hair cells open channels, generating an action potential that propagates to midrib cells
  • These respond by pumping out ions, resulting in rapid
  • growth
  • Open lobes are convex, Closed are concave
  • AP triggers switch
  • Seal to form stomach, fill w enzymes that digest prey
  • (& leaf) w/in 1-2 weeks
slide47

5 basic trapping mechanisms

  • Touched trigger hair cells open channels, generating an action potential that propagates to midrib cells
  • These respond by pumping out ions, resulting in rapid
  • growth
  • Open lobes are convex, Closed are concave
  • AP triggers switch
  • Seal to form stomach, fill w enzymes that digest prey
  • (& leaf) w/in 1-2 weeks
  • Also digest leaf, resorb
  • both
slide48

5 basic trapping mechanisms

  • Touched trigger hair cells open channels, generating an action potential that propagates to midrib cells
  • These respond by pumping out ions, resulting in rapid
  • growth
  • Open lobes are convex, Closed are
  • concave
  • AP triggers switch
  • Seal to form stomach,
  • fill w enzymes that digest prey
  • (& leaf) w/in 1-2 weeks
  • Also digest leaf, resorb
  • Both
  • Flowers on long stalk
slide49

Evolution

  • Pitchers fuse leaves, then
  • pump enzymes into pitcher
slide50

Evolution

  • Pitchers fuse leaves, then
  • pump enzymes into pitcher
  • Resorb nutrients across pitcher
  • surface
slide51

Evolution

  • Pitchers fuse leaves, then
  • pump enzymes into pitcher
  • Resorb nutrients across pitcher
  • Surface
  • 2. Flypaper traps evolve from
  • plants like tobacco that secrete
  • goo on leaves
slide52

Evolution

  • Pitchers fuse leaves, then
  • pump enzymes into pitcher
  • Resorb nutrients across pitcher
  • Surface
  • 2. Flypaper traps evolve from
  • plants like tobacco that secrete
  • goo on leaves
  • Thigmotropism helps trap prey
slide53

Evolution

  • Pitchers fuse leaves, then
  • pump enzymes into pitcher
  • Resorb nutrients across pitcher
  • Surface
  • 2. Flypaper traps evolve from
  • plants like tobacco that secrete
  • goo on leaves
  • Thigmotropism helps trap prey
  • Enzymes help digest prey
slide54

Evolution

  • Pitchers fuse leaves, then
  • pump enzymes into pitcher
  • 2. Flypaper traps evolve from
  • plants like tobacco that secrete
  • goo on leaves
  • 3. Bladder traps may have
  • evolved from aquatic pitchers
slide55

Evolution

  • Pitchers fuse leaves, then pump enzymes into pitcher
  • 2. Flypaper traps evolve from plants like tobacco that secrete goo on leaves
  • 3. Bladder traps may have evolved from aquatic pitchers
  • Added pitcher lid & mech for ion pumping, then
  • opening on demand
slide56

Evolution

  • Pitchers fuse leaves
  • 2. Flypaper traps
  • 3. Bladder traps may have evolved from aquatic pitchers
  • 4: Lobster-pot traps add
  • Inward-facing trichomes
  • to pitchers.
slide57

Evolution

  • Pitchers fuse leaves
  • 2. Flypaper traps
  • 3. Bladder traps may have evolved from aquatic pitchers
  • 4: Lobster-pot traps add
  • Inward-facing trichomes
  • to pitchers.
  • 5. Snap traps evolved from
  • Fly-paper traps
  • More extreme thigmonasty
slide58

Digestion

Digest and resorb everything

slide59

Digestion

Digest and resorb everything

Protect pollinators by making long stem separating flower from traps

slide60

Protecting from bacteria and fungi

Fill traps with anti-bacterial and antifungal compunds

slide61

Protecting from bacteria and fungi

Fill traps with anti-bacterial and antifungal compunds

Source of new antibiotics!