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Title. Nuclear Reaction Models in P article and H eavy I on T ransport code S ystem PHITS. Koji Niita: RIST, Japan Tatsuhiko Sato, JAEA, Japan Hiroshi Iwase: KEK, Japan Yousuke Iwamoto, Norihito Matsuda, Yukio Sakamoto, Hiroshi Nakashima: JAEA, Japan

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Nuclear Reaction Models


Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System


Koji Niita:RIST, Japan

Tatsuhiko Sato, JAEA, Japan

Hiroshi Iwase: KEK, Japan

Yousuke Iwamoto, Norihito Matsuda,

Yukio Sakamoto, Hiroshi Nakashima: JAEA, Japan

Davide Mancusi, Lembit Sihver: Chalmers, Sweden



  • Overview of PHITS
  • Application Fields of PHITS
  • Nuclear Reaction Models in PHITS
  • Event Generator
phits 1

PHITS: Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System


PHITS is a multi-purpose 3D Monte Carlo transport code system

for all particles and Heavy ions with all energies

from meV up to 200 GeV.

5 major codes for all particle transport in a world

application fields of phits

Application Fields of PHITS

Application Fields of PHITS


Cancer Therapy

Space Technology


Spallation Neutron Source

Neutron Optics

Heavy Ion Facilities

Dose in Space Shuttle

Atmospheric Cosmic-Ray


Proton and

Heavy Ion Therapy

spallation 2

Be reflector

Energy Deposition

Fe reflector

Hg target


PHITSfor spallation neutron source in J-PARC

Spallation (2)

PHITS has been extensively used for

Optimization and Shielding design around Hg target of J-PARC


RIKEN RI Beam Factory

GSI FAIR : Super-FRS facility

RIA Beam production area

PHITSfor High Intensity

Heavy Ion facilities


RIA Beam production area

48Ca beam track

Heating in whole system

Beam stop

22C track

4He track



PHITSfor Shielding of

Proton and Carbon Therapy Facilities

3D view by PHITS

Dose distribution


Voxel data

3D view by PHITS

Dose distribution

CT data

PHITSfor planning system for radiotherapy


JCDS (Jaeri Computational Dosimetry System)

creates the Voxel data from CT and MRI data

for MCNP ( PHITS ) calculation.

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

at Dept. Research Reactor, JAEA

space radiation

PHITSfor neutron spectrum in atmosphere

Space Radiation

T. Sato and K. Niita, Radiat. Res.,166 (2006) 544

Galactic Cosmic Ray

Neutron spectrum in any height of

atmosphere even at ground level

dose map on ground level


physical processes

Physical Processes included inPHITS

Physical Processes

Magnetic Field


Super mirror (reflection)

Mechanical devices, T0 chopper

External Field

and Optical devices

Ionization process

for charge particle


between collisions


with nucleus


Energy straggling

Angle Straggling

Nuclear Data MCNP code

ENDF-B/VI, LA150, …..

Particle Induced JAM code


Heavy Ion Collisions JQMD code

Nuclear Reaction Models


JAM code for Hadron Nucleus Collisions up to 200 GeV


Introducing JAM(Jet AA Microscopic Transport Model) Y. Nara et.al. Phys. Rev.C61 (2000) 024901

JAM is a Hadronic Cascade Model, which explicitly treats all established hadronic states including resonances with explicit spin and isospin as well as their anti-particles.

We have parameterized all Hadron-Hadron Cross Sections, based on Resonance Model and String Model by fitting the available experimental data.

Au+Au 200GeV/u in cm

jqmd 1

JQMD code for Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions up to 100 GeV/u


JQMD(Jaeri Quantum Molecular Dynamics) forSimulation of Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

K. Niiita et.al. Phys. Rev. C52 (1995) 2620http://hadron31.tokai-sc.jaea.go.jp/jqmd/

56Fe 800 MeV/u on 208Pb

Analysis of Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions by JQMD


MCNP code for Neutron Transport below 20 MeV with Nuclear Data


Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System developed by

Los Alamos National Lab.

for Neutrons, Photons, Electrons

by using Evaluated Nuclear Data, such as ENDF, JENDL, …


Nuclear Criticality Safety, Radiation Shielding, Fission Reactor Design, …

n-56Fe Reaction Cross Sections

new feature 1

Solving one-body Boltzmann equation

by using the evaluated nuclear data.

  • MCNP type code

energy is conserved in average.

no correlations

Only one-body observables

  • Simulating real phenomena

by using event generators.

Event Generator

  • PHITS for high energy by JAM, JQMD.

Any observables

treat all ejectiles of collisions.

energy and momentum are conserved

in each collision.

Event Generator inPHITS

New Feature (1)

What are we doing in Monte Carlo calculations for particle transport ?

Observables beyond one-body quantities are often required.

We have developed the event generator mode in PHITS for all energy.

event generator mode 2

An example of Event Generator Mode

Event Generator Mode (2)

Neutron-induced semiconductor soft error

SEU: single event upset

Deposit Energy Distribution by PHITS

Leakage of

recoil nucleus

from Si

Neutron 19 MeV





  • Particle and heavy ion transport code (PHITS) is an essential implement

in design study of accelerator facilities for various purpose,

in planning system for radiotherapy, and

in space radiation.

  • Description of nuclear reactions in the code is one of the key quantity

to determine the accuracy of the transport code.

  • Tow reaction models: JAM and JQMD and Nuclear data are employed

in PHITS to describe the nuclear reactions.

  • Event generator combined with the nuclear reaction model and the nuclear

data is necessary to describe new quantities which are related to the higher

order correlations beyond one-body observables.