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Polyatomics. Polyatomics. Remember that the smallest part of a compound is a molecule. Sometimes the bonds between certain atoms in a molecule are so strong that they do not dissociate when dissolved. i.e NH 4 OH This is ammonium hydroxide

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polyatomics1
Polyatomics
  • Remember that the smallest part of a compound is a molecule.
  • Sometimes the bonds between certain atoms in a molecule are so strong that they do not dissociate when dissolved.
  • i.e NH4OH This is ammonium hydroxide
  • When it dissolves in water it becomes the 2 polyatomic molecules (ions)
  • NH4+1 and OH-1
  • Notice how the NH4 and the OH stay together when dissolved.
  • They are the polyatomic molecules that make up ammonium hydroxide
slide3

Ionic Compounds are two or more elements that are held together by opposite charge attraction.

IONIC COMPOUNDS

Oxygen-8

Magnesium-12

-2 Charge

+2 Charge

Metal

Non-metal

slide4

Metals combine with non-metals

Metals lose electrons to non-metals

They then attract because their charges will be opposite.

Metals

slide5

Negative Ions (single atoms)

-2

-1

-3

Most of the negative ions have a set negative charge

slide6

POLYATOMIC IONS (charged building blocks)Polyatomic ions are ions that consist of more than 1 atom. So they are groups of 2 or more atoms that act as one.

  • Eg. Sulfate

SO4-2

4 oxygen atoms, 1 sulfur atom, with a charge of -2

polyatomic ions polyatomic ions are mostly made of two non metals
POLYATOMIC IONS Polyatomic ions are mostly made of two non-metals.

Ions with -1 charge

perbromate BrO4-1

bromate BrO3-1

bromite BrO2-1

hypobromite BrO-1

perchlorate ClO4-1

chlorate ClO3-1

chlorite ClO2-1

hypochlorite ClO-1

periodate IO4-1

iodate IO3-1

iodite IO2-1

hypoiodite IO-1

nitrate NO3-1

nitrite NO2-1

hydroxide OH-1

cyanide CN-1

acetate C2H3O2-1

Permanganate MnO4-1

bicarbonate HCO3-1

Ions with a -2 Charge

carbonate CO3-2

sulfate SO4-2

sulfite SO3-2

chromate CrO4-2

dichromate Cr2O7-2

oxalate C2O4-2

Ions with a -3 Charge

phosphate PO4-3

phosphite PO3-3

arsenate AsO4-3

Ions with +1 charge

ammonium ion NH4+1

slide8

These polyatomic ions have the same charge as these single elements

-1

Ions with -1 charge

perbromate BrO4-1

bromate BrO3-1

bromite BrO2-1

hypobromite BrO-1

perchlorate ClO4-1

chlorate ClO3-1

chlorite ClO2-1

hypochlorite ClO-1

periodate IO4-1

iodate IO3-1

iodite IO2-1

hypoiodite IO-1

slide9

These polyatomic ions have the same charge as these single elements

Ions with a -2 Charge

sulfate SO4-2sulfite SO3-2

Ions with a -3 Charge

phosphate PO4-3

phosphite PO3-3

-3

-2

naming ionic compounds
Naming Ionic Compounds

Cu2SO4

Cu2+xSO4-2

2x +1(-2)=0

x = +1

Ionic compounds are made of two ions. One positive and the other negative.

The positive ion (usually a metal or ammonium) is named first while the negative ion (a non-metal or a polyatomic ion) is named last.

The charge on the negative ion is used to determine the charge on the positive ion that has multiple ionic states

General formula (only use this when the positive ion has multiple charges):

subscript(charge) + subscript(charge) = 0

Copper (I) Sulfate

Ion # 2

Ion # 1

slide11
If the ionic compound is binary (2 atoms), the name of the negative ion will end in “-ide”.

If the negative ion is a polyatomic ion the compound is no longer binary. The ending will be that carried by the polyatomic ion. These endings are either “-ate” or “-ite.”

examples 2 formulas to names
Examples #2- Formulas to Names

1. Write the names of the ions

2. Determine the charge of the positive ion

NH4NO3

I’m a polyatomic ion

ammonium

nitrate

Final Name

If the positive ion has a fixed charge, you are finished.

examples 4 formulas to names
Examples #4- Formulas to Names

1. Write the names of the ions

2. Determine the charge of the positive ion

Cu2S

X = +1

2(X) + 1(-2) = 0

Cu2x(S)-2= 0

I’m not a polyatomic ion

copper

sulfide

(I)

Final Name

examples 1 formulas to names
Examples #1- Formulas to Names

1. Write the names of the ions

= 0

-2

CuSO3

2. Determine the charge of the positive ion

Cu

+2

SO3

x

1(X )+ 1(- 2) = 0

Hi! I’m a polyatomic ion

You must know the charge on the sulfite ion is -2

The sum of the positive and negative charges must equal zero

+2 = +2

X = +2

copper

sulfite

(II)

Final Name

Next

examples 1 formulas to names1
Examples #1- Formulas to Names

1. Write the names of the ions

= 0

-2

Fe2(SO4)3

2. Determine the charge of the positive ion

Fe2

(SO4)3

+3

x

2(X )+ 3(- 2) = 0

Hi! I’m a polyatomic ion

You must know the charge on the sulfite ion is -2

The sum of the positive and negative charges must equal zero

2x - 6 = 0

+ 6 = +6

2x = 6

2

2

X = +3

Iron

sulfate

(III)

Final Name

Next

practice problem 1
Practice Problem #1

Fe(NO3)3

Choose the correct name for the compound

1. Iron trinitrate

No, you do not use prefixes

2. iron(I) nitrate

No, you have the wrong oxidation number

3. iron(III) nitrite

No, you need to review polyatomic ions

4. iron(III) nitrate

Very good, click arrow to continue

5. none of the above

No, there is a correct answer

nextproblem

Periodic Chart

Polyatomic Ions

practice problem 2
Practice Problem #2

sodium chlorite

Choose the correct formula for the compound

1. NaCl

No, you need to review prefixes

2.NaClO

No, you need to review prefixes

Very good, click arrow to continue

3. NaClO2

No, you have several errors

4. Na(ClO)2

No, there is a correct answer

5. none of the above

nextproblem

Prefixes

Periodic Chart

properties of ionic compounds
Properties of Ionic Compounds
  • Hard and brittle solids
  • High melting points
  • Highly soluble in water- electrolyte
  • Are good conductors of electricity in solution
solubility
Solubility
  • The ability of a solid to dissolve in liquid

Ionic compounds have

high solubility

conductivity
Conductivity
  • Ability of a substance to conduct electricity

Electrolyte: A solution that contains

Dissolved Ions that conduct electricity