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National Cereal Crop Residue Project. Russ Karow, Head Oregon State University Dept of Crop & Soil Science. Project Goal. to explore possibilities for use of small grain straws as a biomass source for biofuels production to consider such use in a sustainable cropping system context

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national cereal crop residue project
National Cereal CropResidue Project

Russ Karow, Head

Oregon State University

Dept of Crop & Soil Science

project goal
Project Goal
  • to explore possibilities for use of small grain straws as a biomass source for biofuels production
  • to consider such use in a sustainable cropping system context

Group was given planning grants

group activities
Group Activities
  • organized a symposium at the 2009 ASA meeting on stover removal findings from long-term plots
  • mapped 1999-2008 National Ag Statistics Service yield data for wheat, barley, oat, grain sorghum and rice
  • conducted wheat harvest index studies across major grain growing areas in 2008 and 2009
asa symposium
ASA Symposium

Residue Removal and Soil Quality –

Findings from Long-Term Research Plots

  • Hero Gollany - CQESTR
  • David Tarkalson – Irrigated Grain Residue Removal
  • Stephen Machado – Pendleton long term (OR - 1930)
  • Emerson Nafziger - Morrow Plots (IL - 1876)
  • Randy Miles - Sanborn Field (MO -1888)
  • David Powlson - Rothamsted Plots (England - 1843)
  • Gary Varvel – Current Corn Residue Removal Studies

2009 ASA symposium will be publishedas special series in Agronomy Journal

train of thought in mapping
Train of Thought in Mapping
  • dryland grain yield is driven by rainfall
  • rainfall can vary dramatically over years
  • US has vast grain acreages but generally low yield
  • if straw is left in place for soil quality maintenance, then there are likely few places where straw can be harvested annually
  • identify the places where consistent straw harvest seems possible and focus research efforts in these areas
mapping gis team
Mapping-GIS Team

Mike HalbleibChris Daly

Oregon State University PRISM Group

dryland grain yield is driven by rainfall
Dryland grain yield is driven by rainfall
  • Yield = (inches available water – 4 for vegetation) x 6.5 bu/in
  • rainfall ≠ available water due to evaporation

High rainfall and irrigated production is limited by other factors

harvest index
Harvest Index
  • tool to convert grain yield to straw yield
  • historic “rule of thumb” has been 38% which equates 100 pounds of straw for every bushel (60 pounds) of grain
  • HI = grain/(grain + straw)
    • 0.38 = 60/(100 + 60)
hi studies
HI Studies
  • Partnered with researchers already conducting grain variety trials and had them collect straw samples for HI determination and submission to INL for composition analysis
  • HI determination procedures varied by site hence some observed variation may be due to sampling per se
cereal group field cooperators
Cereal Group Field Cooperators
  • Brent Bean – Texas A&M
  • Bradford Brown – Univ Idaho
  • Bill Bruening – Univ Kentucky
  • Jeff Edwards – Oklahoma State
  • Mike Flowers – Oregon State
  • Dewey Lee – Univ Georgia
  • Michael J. Ottman – Arizona State
  • Joel Ransom – North Dakota State
  • Jochum J. Wiersma – Univ of Minnesota
hi studies1
HI Studies

0.44 = 60 lb grain/(60 grain +76 straw)

straw needed for soil quality
Straw needed for soil quality
  • values vary depending on location – soil type, soil slope, rainfall
  • 3000 -4500 lb/a seem reasonable values
  • for effective harvest you may need an additional 3000 lb/a
  • 6000 lb (3t)/a minimum??
summary
Summary
  • despite vast acreages of grains, given year-to-year variation in yield and harvested acres, there may be few areas where straw can be sustainably harvested as the sole source for a biomass conversion facility
  • possible sites depend on amount of straw left for soil quality maintenance and volume of straw required for a specific plant
  • may be possible in some areas to do intermittent harvest of some fields
summary1
Summary
  • do detailed assessments of crops and other biomass in an area - straw likely to be one of several feed stocks for a plant
  • issue in areas where straw is available for harvest may be competing uses – what will be the cost of drawing straw into biofuels use
plans for 2010
Plans for 2010
  • 2009 ASA symposium will be published as special series in Agronomy Journal
  • HI data will be submitted as AJ note
  • Compiled NASS raw data will be posted to an accessible web site for general use
  • Maps showing grain yields and predicted straw yields will be posted to an accessible web site for general use
  • Explore ideas for other needed work
slide29
Map Website

http://gisdev.nacse.org/prism/sun_grant/

slide30
Common beardless

Common awned

Club awnless

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