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Inland Water Systems. Outline: introduction area and distribution  excursion: peatlands Services Condition Drivers of change conclusions. Inland Water Systems. IWS are: All inland aquatic habitats, whether fresh, brackish or saline, as well as inland seas Lakes Rivers marshes

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Inland water systems
Inland Water Systems

Outline:

  • introduction

  • area and distribution

     excursion: peatlands

  • Services

  • Condition

  • Drivers of change

  • conclusions


Inland water systems1
Inland Water Systems

IWS are:

All inland aquatic habitats, whether fresh, brackish or saline, as well as inland seas

  • Lakes

  • Rivers

  • marshes

  • Swamps

  • Floodplains

  • Small streams

  • Ponds

  • Cave waters

    also rice-fields, aquaculture ponds, reservoirs


Special attributes of iws
Special attributes of IWS

  • Variety in time and extent difficult to assess

  • Biggest species-richness compared to Marine and terrestrial ecosystems

  • Maybe worst threatened of all systems in MA

  • IWS are affected by- but also influence climate change feedback

  • Multiple services from healthy IWS intensive use


Source http ga water usgs gov edu watercyclesummarytext html
Source: http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercyclesummarytext.html


Inland water systems
Area http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercyclesummarytext.html

530 million to 1280 million hectares

  • 2.6% of earth´s surface ; 8.5% of landsurface covered by IWS


Global distribution
Global distribution http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercyclesummarytext.html


Global peatlands
global peatlands http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercyclesummarytext.html


Peatlands
peatlands http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercyclesummarytext.html

  • Peat: organic material which is acumulated but not decomposed due to anoxic conditions in swamps/ marshes

  • Peatlands cover 400 million hectares


Source http earthobservatory nasa gov newsroom newimages images php3 img id 17423
Source: http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercyclesummarytext.htmlhttp://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImages/images.php3?img_id=17423


Peatlands1
peatlands http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercyclesummarytext.html

  • Carbon-accumulation of intact peatlands

    Feedback with climate


Services
Services http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercyclesummarytext.html

  • Hydrologic regulation


Services1
Services http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercyclesummarytext.html

  • Hydrologic regulation

  • Sediment retention and water purification


Services2
Services http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercyclesummarytext.html

  • Hydrologic regulation

  • Sediment retention and water purification

  • Recharge/ discharge of groundwater


Services3
Services http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercyclesummarytext.html

  • Hydrologic regulation

  • Sediment retention and water purification

  • Recharge/ discharge of groundwater

  • Climate-change mitigation


Services4
Services http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercyclesummarytext.html

  • Hydrologic regulation

  • Sediment retention and water purification

  • Recharge/ discharge of groundwater

  • Climate-change mitigation

  • Products from IWS


Services5
Services http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercyclesummarytext.html

  • Hydrologic regulation

  • Sediment retention and water purification

  • Recharge/ discharge of groundwater

  • Climate-change mitigation

  • Products from IWS

  • Recreation and tourism


Services6
Services http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercyclesummarytext.html

  • Hydrologic regulation

  • Sediment retention and water purification

  • Recharge/ discharge of groundwater

  • Climate-change mitigation

  • Products from IWS

  • Recreation and tourism

  • Cultural value


Condition of iws
Condition of IWS http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercyclesummarytext.html

  • Agricultural drainage: 56-65% of IWS suitable for agriculture

  • Wetland-loss: 50% during 20eth century (speculation)

  • Status of IWS species: dramatic


Inland water systems

Table 20.5. Relative Species Richness of Different Ecosystems

(McAllister et al. 1997)

Ecosystems Freshwater Marine Terrestrial

Habitat Extent 0.870.828.4

(percent of

world)

Species Diversity 2.4 14.7 77.5

(percent of

known species)

Relative Species 3.0 0.2 2.7

Richness

source: Millenium ecosystem Assessment chapter 20


Drivers of change
Drivers of change Ecosystems

Indirect drivers:

  • Expansion of population, welfare

    Direct drivers:

  • Physical change, hydrologic modification


Hydrologic modification
hydrologic modification Ecosystems

DAMS:

  • 700% increase in water stored in river-systems

  • immense change of flowing-patterns

  • impact on sediment-transport and waste-processing capacity

    (residence time doubled/ tripled)

  • impact on fish-migration

  • floodplains alterated


Drivers of change1
Drivers of change Ecosystems

Indirect drivers:

  • Expanding of population, welfare

    Direct drivers:

  • Physical change

  • hydrologic modification

  • Invasive species


Drivers of change2
Drivers of change Ecosystems

Indirect drivers:

  • Expanding of population, welfare

    Direct drivers:

  • Physical change

  • hydrologic modification

  • Invasive species

  • Fisheries/ harvesting


Drivers of change3
Drivers of change Ecosystems

Indirect drivers:

  • Expanding of population, welfare

    Direct drivers:

  • Physical change

  • hydrologic modification

  • Invasive species

  • Fisheries/ harvesting

  • Water pollution and eutrophication


Drivers of change4
Drivers of change Ecosystems

Indirect drivers:

  • Expanding of population, welfare

    Direct drivers:

  • Physical change

  • hydrologic modification

  • Invasive species

  • Fisheries/ harvesting

  • Water pollution and eutrophication

  • Climate change


Conclusions
conclusions Ecosystems

  • Deep examination often reveals: greater economic benefits from intact IWS than of those beeing converted (holistic approach)

    essential to consider information about full range of benefits

  • Special agreements needed due to connectivity of IWS (linkage between countries)

  • People who benefit most from intact IWS are local residents, especially poor people

    Use of local knowledge and consideration of local people required