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Chemistry WarmUp Copy ALL of these assignments into your binder Including dates, WarmUps, InClass assignments AND page numbers!. August 30-31 WarmUp: Agenda and complete egg in a bottle lab report InClass: Safety Contract review InClass: Lab Bubbles p23

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August 30 31 warmup agenda and complete egg in a bottle lab report

Chemistry WarmUp Copy ALL of these assignments into your binderIncluding dates, WarmUps, InClass assignments AND page numbers!

August 30-31

WarmUp: Agenda and complete egg in a bottle lab report

InClass: Safety Contract review InClass: Lab Bubbles p23

Homework: Read and take notes 1.3 p25 q18-25DUE NEXT CLASS

Setpember 1

WarmUp: Hypothesis/Procedure/Observations

InClass: Introduction to Dimensional Analysis

Homework: Read 1.4 answer q26-27p30 DUE NEXT CLASS

September 2-3

WarmUp: Scientific Method and the Bubbles Lab Revisited

InClass: An Experimental Approach to Science p21TE

InClass: Self-assess bubbles lab

Quiz: Scientific Method ch1.1-1.3

Lab: Using the metric system

Homework: Read 2.1 answer q3-7 DUE NEXT CLASS

As soon as you finish copying these assignments:

Carefully read over and complete your Egg in a Bottle lab report.

Compare your use the rubric to assign yourself a grade.


Announcements

Announcements

SLAC: LEADING THE CHARGE: Exotic New Materials for Future Devices

September 28th 7:30-8:30

For extra credit (10 homework or inclass points) turn in

•Program

•Your notes signed by the presenter or organizer.

http://www2.slac.stanford.edu/lectures/

EYH:

October 9, 2010 UCSC

http://eyh.ucsc.edu/


Chapter 1

Chapter 1

Introduction to Chemistry


Chapter 11

Chapter 1

Introduction to Chemistry


What is chemistry
What is Chemistry?

  • Study of matter composition, properties, & changes

  • Applied chemistry attain goals

  • Pure chemistry gather knowledge for knowledge’s sake


Why study chemistry
Why study Chemistry

  • Explain the natural world

    • Why?

  • Prepare for a career

    • Directly- in a lab

    • Indirectly- problem solving and thinking skills

  • Be an informed citizen

    • Vote

    • Don’t get scammed


1 3 alchemy
1.3 Alchemy

  • Forerunner of chemistry

  • Mystical- search for perfection

  • Practical- developed glassware and techniques used today

  • Tried to change elements

  • Faulty assumptions and lack of logic led them astray


Scientific method
Scientific Method

  • A way of solving problems or answering questions.

  • Starts with observation- noting and recording facts

  • Hypothesis- possible explanation of a set of observation

    • based on research

    • and previous knowledge


Scientific method1
Scientific Method

  • Experiment- designed to test the hypothesis

  • only two possible answers

    • hypothesis is right

    • hypothesis is wrong

  • Generates data -observations from experiments.

  • Modify hypothesis - repeat the cycle




Variables
Variables

  • Controlled experiment- one thing is changed.

  • Manipulated variable- What you change or control directly

    • Also called independent variable

  • Responding variable – What changes as a result. No direct control

    • Also called dependent variable



Aristotle 384 322 bc
Aristotle (384 –322 BC)

Proposed theory of spontaneous generation

Also called abiogenesis

Living things can arise from nonliving matter

Idea lasted almost 2000 years

14




Example 1
Example #1

Observation:Every year in the spring, the Nile River flooded areas of Egypt along the river, leaving behind nutrient-rich mud that enabled the people to grow that year’s crop of food. However, along with the muddy soil, large numbers of frogs appeared that weren’t around in drier times

17


Example 11
Example #1

Conclusion: It was perfectly obvious to people back then that muddy soil gave rise to the frogs

18


Example 2
Example #2

Observation:In many parts of Europe, medieval farmers stored grain in barns with thatched roofs (like Shakespeare’s house). As a roof aged, it was not uncommon for it to start leaking. This could lead to spoiled or moldy grain, and of course there were lots of mice around.

19


Example 21
Example #2

Conclusion:It was obvious to them that the mice came from the moldy grain.

20


Example 3
Example #3

Observation:Since there were no refrigerators, the mandatory, daily trip to the butcher shop, especially in summer, meant battling the flies around the carcasses. Typically, carcasses were “hung by their heels,” and customers selected which chunk the butcher would carve off for them.

21


Example 31
Example #3

Conclusion:Obviously, the rotting meat that had been hanging in the sun all day was the source of the flies.

22


Abiogenesis recipes
Abiogenesis Recipes

Recipe for mice:

Place a dirty shirt or some rags in an open pot or barrel containing a few grains of wheat or some wheat bran, and in 21 days, mice will appear. There will be adult males and females present, and they will be capable of mating and reproducing more mice.

23




Step 1 observation
Step 1 - Observation

There were flies around meat carcasses at the Butcher shop.

Where do the flies come from?

Does rotting meat turn into or produce rotting flies?

26


Step 2 hypothesis
Step 2 - Hypothesis

Rotten meat does not turn into flies. Only flies can make more flies.

27


Redi s 1626 1697 experiments
Redi’s (1626-1697) Experiments

What is the the manipulated variable?

28


Redi s 1626 1697 experiments1
Redi’s (1626-1697) Experiments

What is the the manipulated variable?

29


Redi s 1626 1697 experiments2
Redi’s (1626-1697) Experiments

Name several controlled variables:

What is the responding (dependent) variable?

1. Unsealed – maggots on meat

2. Sealed – no maggots on meat

3. Gauze – few maggots on gauze, none on meat

30



August 30 31 warmup agenda and complete egg in a bottle lab report

Observations

  • Cycle repeats many times.

  • By you and by others

  • The hypothesis gets more and more certain.

  • Becomes a theory

  • A thoroughly tested model that explains why things behave a certain way.

Hypothesis

Experiment


August 30 31 warmup agenda and complete egg in a bottle lab report

Observations

  • Theory can never be proven.

  • The best explanation

  • Useful because it predicts behavior

  • Helps us form mental pictures of processes (models)

Hypothesis

Experiment


August 30 31 warmup agenda and complete egg in a bottle lab report

Observations

  • Another outcome is that certain behavior is repeated many times

  • Scientific Law is developed

  • Description of how things behave

  • Usually an equation

  • Law - how

  • Theory- why

Hypothesis

Experiment


August 30 31 warmup agenda and complete egg in a bottle lab report

Theory

(Model)

Modify

Prediction

Experiment

Law

Observations

Hypothesis

Experiment


Communication
Communication

  • Use Journals

    • Do research

    • Write article

      • Describe procedures, methods, and findings

    • Submit for peer review

      • Sent back for editing

    • Publish

      • Letters to editor respond.


Collaboration
Collaboration

  • Working together

  • Teams

    • Different skills

    • Different specialties

  • Internet and Email

  • Conferences


Chemistry warm up
Chemistry Warm Up

1. How does a hypothesis become a theory?

2. Are theories ever wrong?

3. If a scientist subscribes to a hypothesis, but

performs an experiment that disproves the hypothesis

what should he or she do?

4. Explain the role of collaboration and communication in the scientific method.

5. What is

a. manipulated variable?

b. responding variable?

c. controlled variable?

Grading for this warm up:

I didn’t understand, so I put my name and the date on the paper, and wrote down the questions – 1 point

I wrote complete and correct answers to at least half of the questions – 2 more points (total of 3 points)

I wrote complete and correct answers to all of the questions 2 more points (total of 5 points)

When you finish, read and take notes 1.4 and andswer 26 and 27 in that chapter.


Problem solving
Problem Solving

  • Only way to get good is to practice

  • Two parts

    • Developing Plan-

      • Hard part

      • Higher level thinking

    • Implementing Plan-

      • Not so hard

      • Application level


Solving numeric problems
Solving Numeric Problems

  • Three steps-

    • Analyze

      • Known

        • Numbers

        • Measurements

        • Equations

      • Unknown

        • What are you looking for?

        • What units?


Solving numeric problems1
Solving Numeric Problems

  • Three steps-

    • Analyze

      • Plan

        • The heart of problem solving

        • Diagram

        • Look info

          • Table

          • Graph

          • Equation


Solving numeric problems2
Solving Numeric Problems

  • Three steps-

    • Analyze

    • Calculate

      • Easiest part

      • Convert measurements

      • Rearrange

      • Appendix C


Solving numeric problems3
Solving Numeric Problems

  • Three steps-

    • Analyze

    • Calculate

    • Evaluate

      • Reasonable?

      • Read the question, did you answer it?

      • Check your work

      • Estimate


Practice
Practice

  • What is the length, in centimeters, of a 10.0-inch ruler, given that there are 2.54 centimeters per inch?


Practice1
Practice

  • A certain ball when dropped from any height, bounces one-half the original height. If the ball was dropped from a height of 60 in. and allowed to bounce freely, what is the total distance the ball has traveled when it hits the ground for the third time? Assume the ball bounces straight up and down.


Conceptual problems
Conceptual Problems

  • Without numbers or math

  • Two steps

    • Analyze

      • Identify known and unknown

      • Plan

    • Solve


Practice2
Practice

  • You find a sealed box with strings protruding from three holes, as shown in the diagram. When you tug string A, it becomes longer and string C becomes shorter. When you tug string B, it becomes longer, but strings A and C are not affected. Make a diagram showing the arrangement of the strings inside the box.