g130 geology of national parks and monuments n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
G130 – Geology of National Parks and Monuments PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
G130 – Geology of National Parks and Monuments

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 28

G130 – Geology of National Parks and Monuments - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 197 Views
  • Uploaded on

G130 – Geology of National Parks and Monuments. Instructor: F. Vincent Hernly. G130 – Geology of National Parks Lecture 01 - Introduction. Early National Parks Creation of National Parks Service Introduction to Geology Overview of Rocks Geologic Processes Geologic History.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

G130 – Geology of National Parks and Monuments


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
    Presentation Transcript
    1. G130 – Geology of National Parks and Monuments Instructor: F. Vincent Hernly

    2. G130 – Geology of National ParksLecture 01 - Introduction • Early National Parks • Creation of National Parks Service • Introduction to Geology • Overview of Rocks • Geologic Processes • Geologic History

    3. Creation of First National Parks, 1800’s • 20 APR 1832 Hot Springs Reserve, Arkansas • redesignated Hot Springs NP 1921 • 30 JUN 1864 Yosemite State Park, California • incorporated in Yosemite NP 1906 • 01 MAR 1872 Yellowstone National Park • First Property designated as a National Park • 1875 Mackinac NP, Michigan (abolished 1895) • converted to Mackinac Island State Park, Michigan’s first state park, 1895 • Since 1960 is additionally Mackinac Island National Historic Landmark • 1890 General Grant NP • incorporated in Kings Canyon NP 1940 • 1890 Sequoia NP • 1890 Yosemite NP • incorporated Yosemite State Park 1906 • 1899 Mount Rainier NP

    4. Creation of First National Parks, early 1900’s • Theodore Roosevelt, President, 1901-1909 • 22 MAY 1902Crater Lake NP, Oregon • 01 JUL 1902 Sulphur Springs Reservation, Oklahoma • to Platt NP 1906; to Chickasaw NRA 1976 • 09 JAN 1903Wind Cave NP, South Dakota • 27 APR 1904 Sullys Hill NP, North Dakota • transferred to Ag. Dept. as game preserve 1931

    5. Antiquities Act • 08 JUN 1906 – passed by Congress • Needed to halt vandalism and plundering, esp. of archaeological ruins in the southwest US • Gave President of US power to establish National Monuments (NM) • Congressional act still needed to create National Park (NP)

    6. Proliferation of National Monuments • 08 JUN 1906 – Antiquities Act • 1906 – 4 NM designated (including Petrified Forest, NP in 1962) • 1907 – 5 NM (including Cinder Cone & Lassen Peak, combined as Lassen Volcanic NP 1916) • 1908 – 8 NM (including Grand Canyon, NP in 1919) • 1909 – 6 NM (including Olympic, NP 1938 and Zion, NP 1919) • 1910 to 1916 – 12 more (under Taft and Wilson) • (Including what was to become Acadia NP, 1929) • NP created 1906-1916 • Mesa Verde, Glacier, Rocky Mountain, Abe Lincoln, Hawaii, Lassen Volcanic

    7. Chaos in the National Parks • NP were run by individual Interior Dept Clerks • lack of uniformity and guidelines in the forming and managing of U.S. national parks.  • Lack of Coordinated leadership • Led to poor conditions and lack of protection • Desire to increasing tourism to NPs from RR, Auto Clubs, and concessionaires

    8. Creation of the NPS • 25 AUG 1916 – National Parks Act • Created National Park Service • Bureau within Dept. of Interior • Stephen T. Mather – first director • Responsibility over: • 14 NP • 21 NM

    9. NPS Today • 58 National Parks • At least 78 National Monuments • Total of 391 Areas or Units • Questions?

    10. Geology • Scientific Study of the Earth • Physical Geology • Historical Geology • Earth Materials • Elements, Minerals, Rocks

    11. Elements in Earths Crust Of the 92 naturally occurring elements, only 8 consist of 98.5% of all elements in the crust. The other 84 elements are found in the remaining 1.5%.

    12. Minerals • Basic building blocks of the earths crust • Over 2000 known, top 25 make-up over 95% of all minerals in the crust • Quartz, Feldspar, Iron Oxides, Mica, Amphibole, Pyroxene, Olivine, Carbonates, Clay Minerals • Examples in Box 25.2, p. 341, HTT

    13. Rocks • Aggregates of Minerals • Classified in three types, based on origin • Igneous • Sedimentary • Metamorphic • p. 13 in HTT

    14. WeatheringTable 3.1 p. 48 HTT Similar diagram on p. 15, HTT

    15. Igneous Rocks • Form from cooling of molten rock • Magma vs Lava • Classified based on: • Texture – Cooling history • Small crystals – fast cooling • Large crystals – slow cooling • Composition of magma • Granitic Hi silica, low metals, light color • Basaltic low silica, higher metals, dark color • More in Box 25.1, p. 339-340, HTT

    16. Basalt Gabbro

    17. Rhyolite Granite

    18. Melting at convergent plate boundariesMore about Plate Tectonics in Box 2.1, p. 37-39, HTT

    19. Sedimentary Rocks • Form at or very near surface of earth • Cementation of fragments or precipitation • Classification based on: • Texture – transportation history • Small grains – traveled far • Large grains – near source • Composition – source of sediment • Carbonates – marine waters • Silicates – terrestrial source • More in Table 1.1, p. 14, HTT

    20. Sedimentary features • Bedding or Layering • Sedimentary features (ripples, x-beds) • ~75 % of rocks at surface are sedimentary • Contain much evidence for geologic history

    21. Metamorphic Rocks • Formed from transformation of other rocks • Due mainly to: • Increase in temperature • Increase in pressure • Introduction of chemically active fluids • More in Box 24.1, p. 324, HTT

    22. Geologic Agents & ProcessesWill be discussed further as we discuss individual parks • Volcanism (Part IV, p. 506-508; Box 40.1, p. 577, HTT) • Mountain Building (Part V, p. 643-644, HTT) • Weathering (p. 48, HTT, including Table 3.1) • Streams (p. 10-11, HTT; Box 11.1, p. 144, HTT) • Waves (Box 30.2, p 432, HTT) • Glaciers (Part III, p. 290-293, HTT) • Wind • Groundwater (Part II, p. 189, HTT; Box 14.1, p. 196 HTT)

    23. Geologic Time – Basic Principles • Principle of Uniformitarianism • Principle of Original Horizontality • Principle of Lateral Continuity • Principle of Superposition • Principle of Cross-Cutting Relationships

    24. Geologic Time Scale • Time is divided into intervals • Eons, Eras, Periods, Epoch • Divisions are based on Fossils • Principle of Faunal Succession • Age is based on relative dating • Since ~1900, numerical ages have been determined based on radiometric dating • Time scale can be found inside front cover of HTT

    25. Physiography of contiguous US

    26. Physiographic Regions of contiguous US, with NPS units

    27. Physiography of Alaska, with National Parks