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RUSSIA: FROM FLEDGLING PRINCIPALITY TO MAJOR POWER

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RUSSIA: FROM FLEDGLING PRINCIPALITY TO MAJOR POWER. WHAT IS RUSSIA? European/Western -> ? Asiatic/Eastern -> ? Both/Something special and unique -> ?. WHY WAS RUSSIA DIFFERENT?. Geography Religion – Eastern Orthodox Christianity Autocracy – one man rule at the top Small powerful nobles

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russia from fledgling principality to major power
RUSSIA: FROM FLEDGLING PRINCIPALITY TO MAJOR POWER
  • WHAT IS RUSSIA?
  • European/Western -> ?
  • Asiatic/Eastern -> ?
  • Both/Something special and unique -> ?
why was russia different
WHY WAS RUSSIA DIFFERENT?
  • Geography
  • Religion – Eastern Orthodox Christianity
  • Autocracy – one man rule at the top
  • Small powerful nobles
  • Serfdom – harsh and enduring
  • No middle class
  • No/slow economic development
russia from mongol invasion to ivan the terrible
RUSSIA – FROM MONGOL INVASION TO IVAN THE TERRIBLE
  • Invaded and occupied by the Mongols -> 13th through 15th centuries = “the Tartar Yoke”
  • The Principality of Moscow
  • The Grand Duke of Moscow
  • IVAN IV, THE TERRIBLE
  • First to take the title Tsar/Czar
  • Expands Russia to the East
  • Wife dies -> goes crazy -> slaughters the Boyars (old Russian nobility)
  • Creates a new “service nobility”
russia the time of troubles
RUSSIA – “THE TIME OF TROUBLES”
  • Period of aristocratic/noble resurgence and anarchy after Ivan’s death
the house of romanov
THE HOUSE OF ROMANOV
  • Michael Romanov becomes Tsar in 1613
  • Romanov’s establish a dynasty in Russia last from 1613 until World War I and the Soviet Revolution in 1917
the reign of peter the great 1689 1725
THE REIGN OF PETER THE GREAT 1689-1725
  • Tsar Peter Romanov = Peter the Great
  • Westernize/Europeanize backward Russia
  • Emphasis on technical development to strengthen Russia militarily
  • Reorganizes the army/creates a navy
  • Forces the nobles to serve in either military or government positions
  • Adopts mercantilist policies -> but mostly just squeezes taxes out of poor peasants
  • Establishes govt control over Russian Orthodox Church
  • Introduces/forces Western customs, manners, and style -> cutting off noble’s beards and long coats
russia opening a window to the west
RUSSIA: OPENING A WINDOW TO THE WEST
  • Peter wanted an ice-free warm water port to give access to Europe
  • THE GREAT NORTHERN WAR 1701-1721 -> Peter defeats Sweden
  • Sweden becomes second rate power/Russia becomes big dog in the Baltic region
  • Peter builds new capital/window to the West – St. Petersburg
the growth of monarchy in sweden
THE GROWTH OF MONARCHY IN SWEDEN
  • King Gustavus Adolphus 1611-1632 -> killed in the Thirty Years’ War
  • King Charles XI – builds Swedish monarchy along absolutist lines
  • King Charles XII -> loses war to Russia and Sweden becomes second rate
the ottoman empire
THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE
  • Conquer Constantinople in 1453
  • Attempt to conquer all of the Balkans
  • Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent 1520-1566 = the greatest of the Ottoman rulers
  • Conquer Yugoslavia in 1521/Hungary in 1526/attack Vienna in 1529 but fail
  • Major naval defeat – the Battle of Lepanto 1571 = limits Turkish naval power in Medit.
  • JANISSARIES – christian boys taken from parents -> converted to Islam -> trained from childhood to be the elite personal soldiers of the Sultan
the limits of absolutism
THE LIMITS OF ABSOLUTISM
  • Absolute monarchs were not able to establish absolute power
  • Local power was still mostly in the hands of the nobles
  • Landowning aristocracy was immensely powerful -> they limited what monarchs could do