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OK Let’s try again:. Name, how you wish to be addressed? Given what you understand about the course so far, what do you hope to learn? Share something that will help us know you. ?. Form Groups. Mill and find others or they will find you. We have 20 enrollees so we need 4 groups of 5.

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ok let s try again
OK Let’s try again:
  • Name, how you wish to be addressed?
  • Given what you understand about the course so far, what do you hope to learn?
  • Share something that will help us know you.
  • ?
form groups

Form Groups

Mill and find others or they will find you.

We have 20 enrollees so we need 4 groups of 5.

Choose a point person.

meet in groups
Meet in groups
  • 1. What makes sense about the course so far or looks good to you?
  • 2. What’s not clear? Anyone else got it figure out?
  • 3. How can we "make sure "info flows freely" and "how will we deal with conflict or differences, with each other, or with the instructor"?
  • Pick a point person
norms to encourage the free flow of information that will allow us to disagree we will
Norms to encourage the free flow of information that will allow us to disagree. We will:
  • 1.Respect each other's ideas  and encourage differences  of opinion.
  • 2. Be hard on ideas but not people.
  • 3. Share the blame if class sessions go wrong or if our learning plans are ineffective.
  • 4. Share the recognition and rewards if our class goes well.
  • 5. Encourage each other to take part in planning and decision making about the means to achieve the ends, both individual, group, and those of the prof.
  • 6. Offer support and assistance to each other.
  • 7. Listen to each other.
  • 8. Discuss our feelings openly and honestly.
  • 9. Come prepared so we are all on the same page.
  • 10. Be here and be on time so we can begin together.11.12.13.
strongly agree agree partially agree neutral partially disagree disagree strongly disagree

Do you agree?

“Most working teams I have known, in school, on my job, or elsewhere have been high performing, well lead, effective, and satisfying experiences.”

Strongly agree


Partially agree


Partially disagree


Strongly disagree

shared inquiry
Shared Inquiry
  • Starts with asking really good questions
wisdom asking good questions

Wisdom: Asking good questions

“Judge others by their questions rather than by their answers.” Voltaire (1694-1778)

Teams at work have more talent and experience, more diverse resources, and greater operating flexibility than individual performers.

A good question of shared inquiry is:

So why do so many work teams either struggle unpleasantly toward an unsatisfactory conclusion-or, worse, crash and burn shortly after launch?

What ‘cha think? So let’s inquire a while?

a couple of main ideas
A Couple of Main Ideas
  • Find and act on the best knowledge and evidence based empirical findings not just on someone else’s “best practices.”
  • Deal with vexing half-truths such as: “Leaders are in control and ought to be.”
small group discussion
Small Group Discussion
  • Any formal training about groups/teams?
  • Books about teams or team leadership you have read and liked?
pick a title
Pick a Title

Which Truth?

leading teams
Leading Teams
  • It’s not all intuition and “best practices.” Better evidence can lead to better leadership performance
  • There are smarter, more “evidenced ways” to think about and understand leadership and better ways to “lead” teams.
but one thing for sure
  • You can’t learn just by watching and talking about it; you’ve got to do it.
  • "How vain to try to teach youth, or anyone, truths! They can only learn them out of their own fashion, and when they get ready...A man thinks as well through his legs and arms as his brain. We exaggerate the importance of the headquarters." (Henry Thoreau, Dec. 31, 1860)
small group discussion leadership experience
Small Group Discussion: Leadership Experience?
  • Where have you been asked to lead teams?
  • Where do you hope to lead?
have you a leadership development plan
Experience change, complexity & learn to tolerate ambiguity

Who should participate with you in your development?

Role of mentors

Finding feedback

Variety of experiences

Presentation (oral and written) skills

Comfort with conflict

Showing up at the “table”

Making connections

Moving up

Value of cross-cultural

Watching others

Political and volunteer organizations

Keeping a log/diary

Writing/rewriting your obituary

Have You a Leadership Development Plan?

A Systematic Approach

Learning from Experience

making sense of it is tough
Making sense of “it” is tough
  • Too many “experts”
  • Little integration
  • Inconsistent claims
applying occam s razor
Applying Occam’s Razor
  • Cut out all the “crappy” books about leadership
it s a big task need a book about leadership
It’s a big task. Need a book about leadership?
  • http://www.leadershipnow.com/leadershop/titleindex.html
  • The latest:


the happy foot of the head penguin
The Happy Foot of the Head Penguin
  • http://www.leadershipnow.com/leadershop/031236198X.html
  • Question: If we are so sure we know what “it” is, why are there so many different ideas about what you need to know if you wanted “to get you some?”
  • Leadership books keep rolling off the presses as if their authors had something new to say. A significant new theory of leadership hasn’t been advanced in years, and there are few serious research findings to report. Yet authors keep churning out books.

Want one of mine? Sells for $35.00; publisher gives us $4.50 a copy which Bob and I split. (That’s why I’m still working and our publisher retired to Florida.) It has empirical research to support the assertions.



Hot off the press: half baked? From the “flyer”: Quote for the flyer: Structured so it can be read in time chunks, consistent with the ’60-Second’ proposition.”

from the same author
From the Same Author

It helps to have “seven”since the success of Stephen Covey


Opps: Make That EightThe Seven Habits of Highly Effective People, was extremely successful and has sold over 15 million copies worldwide since first publication in 1989.

more from franklin covey
More from Franklin Covey


a difficult proposition to support or measure
A difficult proposition tosupport or measure
  • "Trust is the essence of leadership."--Colin Powell
Another Self-Confirming Behavior:You gotta know when to hold ‘em; know when to fold ‘em; know when to walk away and know when to run.
  • Trusting is like playing poker
toward evidenced based leadership research
Toward evidenced based leadership research
  • Definition murky
  • Many assertions; little evidence
  • Messy problems
  • Better standards can be used
  • Empirical studies, little added since 1970’s
  • Now mostly war stories or exhortations
two big questions
Two Big Questions
  • How do people explain or try to understand a leader’s behavior?
  • What kinds of errors do people make when explaining or trying to understand a leader’s behavior?
the basic premise
The Basic Premise

Behavior is to be understood as a function of: Individual, Situation

B = (f) I, S(I)Individual Dispositionalattributes/”personality/traits (values, attitudes, experience, education, etc.)(as they interact with)(S)The Situation as the individual makes sense of (understands) it.

first leadership studies the search for the right stuff dispositions thru the 1950s
First Leadership Studies: The Search for the Right Stuff (dispositions) thru the 1950s
  • Emphasis on B= (f) Indiv. traits, not Situation
  • Assumes that a finite number of individual traits of effective leaders can be found
    • intelligence
    • personality
    • physical characteristics
  • Relies on research that relates various traits to certain success criteria
  • Research findings were contradictory
  • People are born with inherited traits.
  • Some traits are particularly suited to leadership.
  • People who make good leaders have the right (or sufficient) combination of traits.
early research on leadership was based on the psychological focus of the day
Early research on leadership was based on the psychological focus of the day
  • people have inherited characteristics or traits
  • attention was placed on discovering these traits, often by studying successful leaders
  • underlying assumption that if other people could also be found with these traits, then they, too, could also become great leaders.
  • if particular traits are key features of leadership, how do we explain people who possess those qualities but are not leaders?
  • minimized the impact of the situation
shortcomings of the trait theory of leadership
Shortcomings of the Trait Theory of Leadership
  • The list of potentially important traits is endless
  • Trait test scores are not consistently predictive of leader effectiveness
  • Patterns of effective behavior always depend largely on the situation
  • The trait approach fails to provide insight into what the effective leader actually does on the job
  • Hindered by methodological problems
    • Problem connecting abstract trait and how it “shows up in behavior”
    • Can’t examined traits one-at a-time
    • If traits matter, it is probably a constellation of interacting traits which can’t be reduced to single traits, thus very difficult to study.
the fundamental attribution error
The fundamental attribution error
  • Janet and Michael go on a date and, at the end of the evening, he promises to call her tomorrow. Tomorrow comes along, but Michael doesn’t call. In thinking about this situation, Janet might come up with different explanations for his behavior. What are some possible explanations for Michael’s behavior?

Causal attributions

  • Internal attribution: Explain in terms of something about the person, e.g., traits (e.g., Michael is rude and unreliable)
  • External attribution: Explain in terms of something about the situation (e.g., Michael couldn’t call because he’s in the hospital and unconscious)
pick up most leadership books and you find most authors make same error
Pick Up Most Leadership Books and You Find Most Authors Make Same Error
  • Fundamental attribution error: the tendency to overestimate the impact of internal, personality causes (traits) and to underestimate the impact of situational causes when explaining leadership behavior.
the romance of leadership
“The romance of leadership”
  • Leaders get more credit than they deserve
  • Leaders get more blame than they have earned

The tendency to over emphasize I>S


http://management.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?zi=1/XJ&sdn=management&cdn=money&tm=14&gps=393_545_1020_541&f=20&su=p284.21.140.ip_p554.2.150.ip_p284.2.420.ip_&tt=2&bt=0&bts=0&zu=http%3A//www.aflcio.org/corporateamerica/paywatch/ceou/U of Mo salaries http://www.columbiabusinesstimes.com/index.php

In 2005, the average CEO of a Standard & Poor's

500 company received $13.51 million in total


The Corporate Library’s 2006 CEO Pay Survey, The Corporate Library, September 29, 2006

an idea central to this course
  • We will guard ourselves religiously from making
  • The fundamental leadership attribution error
two attributional biases
Two attributional biases
  • Fundamental attribution errorAND A SECOND ONe
  • Actor-observer differences
how we try to explain our own behavior
How We Try to Explain Our Own Behavior
  • People moderate their behavior by how they understand the circumstances of the situation as theyfind it.
actors observers tend to attribute causality differently
Actors/ObserversTend to Attribute Causality Differently


The OBSERVOR infers causes of others behavior from the attributes of the actor.


ACTORS infer causes of own behavior from the situation.

We (as an observer) tend to see other people’s behaviors as being caused by their personal dispositions, while perceiving our own actions as due to situational factors.
hence the second error causal attribution the actor observer difference
Hence the Second Error: Causal Attribution, The Actor/Observer Difference

The actor/observer difference is the tendency to see other people’s behavior as dispositional caused, but focusing more on the role of situational factors when explaining one’s own behavior.

example have you been there
Example: Have You Been There?
  • Imagine you are working on a group project and one of the other students does not complete her part.
  • Your view: She’s lazy, inconsiderate, not motivated. (internal, personal)
  • Her view: I’m taking 5 classes, working 30 hours/week, my boyfriend cheated on me, and my grandmother just ran off with a 25 year old fellow. (external, situational)
  • You tell the prof you don’t like her bad “attitude.”
  • She tells the prof, “all I want is a C.”
the actor observer difference
The Actor/Observer Difference

One reason for the actor/observer difference is perceptual salience (figure vs. ground): actors notice the situations around them that influence them to act, while observers notice the actors.

The actor/observer difference also occurs because actors have more information about themselves than do observers.

actors and observors
Actors and Observors
  • A and O rely on two fundamentally different sources of info
  • One external (O); the other internal (I)
  • No wonder its so hard to gain agreement about who “messed up?”
get this


Get these and the rationale for how this course is taught will be understood:Avoid the Fundamental Leadership Attribution Error To Lead Teams, Work on the Situation Rather than Trying to Fix the Individual(s)

end objective of the course
End:Objective of the Course
  • Identify the key situational conditions that YOU can put in place to increase the likelihood of team success-regardless of you “personality” or preferred style of operating.
the big five situational factors a leader can do something about according to hackman
The Big Five Situational Factors a Leader Can Do something About (According to Hackman)
  • Create a Real Work Team
  • Provide Compelling Direction
  • Build Structure to Foster Not Impede Teamwork
  • Tweak to Provide Organizational Support and Resources
  • Arrange for or Provide Expert Coaching
ends dick means you and your group
Ends: DickMeans: You and Your Group
  • The four groups will to a large extent determine the Means to achieve the End.
  • The Way (means) we will do this is:
      • For you to read assignments carefully in timely manner (when they are assigned)
      • By writing and discussing Shared Inquiry questions, insightfully
      • By group designed “learning activities”
      • By prof led occasional theoretical input and other activities
      • For you to work on your own behavioral change goals
leading 516 for me is to structure support and guide our class by
“Leading” 516 for me is to structure, support, and guide our class by
  • enhance the social processes essential to collective learning
  • build shared commitment, help develop our skills, and identify task-appropriate coordination strategies
  • help troubleshoot ways we are engaging each other, problems we are having with each other and the course
  • spot emerging opportunities, and finally
  • capture our experiences with each other and help translate them into shared knowledge

Attending to Our Situation