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lydia-mccoy

Nature of Matter - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Nature of Matter
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  1. Nature of Matter

  2. Matter • Anything that takes up space • Has mass • You are made up of matter…and so is everything around you 

  3. Looking more closely at matter… • Atoms: basic building blocks of matter • Atoms are made up of Subatomic particles: PROTONS NEUTRONS ELECTRONS

  4. Subatomic particles • Proton: +, nucleus • Neutrons: neutral, nucleus • Electrons: negative, cloud around nucleus; organization inside cloud – into shells

  5. Atomic Rules • The number of protons and electrons are usually equal in an atom • So the positives and negatives balance out… • So the overall charge of an atom is: 0

  6. Elements • Pure substance • Made up of only one type of atom

  7. Which elements are the most common in living things?

  8. To answer that question… • We have to look at the substances that make up you. • More often than not, elements do not exist in their solitary state.

  9. Sooo…… Which elements are the most common in living things?

  10. Key elements for living things • CARBON (C) • HYDROGEN (H) • OXYGEN (O) • PHOSPHORUS (P) • NITROGEN (N) • SULFUR (S)

  11. Atomic Number • Number of protons in an atom • Carbon’s atomic number = 6 • So carbon has 6 protons • And by default…since atoms are neutral, we can say: • Atomic number is also equal to the number of electrons

  12. PRACTICE! • Neon = atomic number is 10 • # protons? • # electrons? • CHLORINE = atomic number is 17 • # protons? • # electrons?

  13. Side Note • If we change the atomic number, we change the element we are talking about…

  14. Ions • An atom that has gained or lost electrons • If an atom gains electrons…it’s charge is • If an atom loses electrons…it’s charge is

  15. How are ions important to you?

  16. What about the neutrons? • Atomic Mass: sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

  17. So… • To figure out the number of neutrons in an atom…you have to: Atomic mass – atomic number = # of neutrons Practice: carbon’s atomic number is 6, mass is 12

  18. More practice • Chlorine: atomic number = 17 atomic mass = 35

  19. Isotopes • Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons • Isotopes: atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

  20. How are isotopes important to you? • Can be used as “chemical tracers” to help locate certain substances at the cellular level • Radioactive isotopes: • Dating • Study biological processes • Treatments • Exposure

  21. Compounds • Substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions • Example: WATER! • Water is NOT an element! Made up of 2 elements!!