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KALININGRAD REGION: Economic Performance and Business Climate. An overview for potential investors by Dmitry Gavrilin, EBRD, London For Swiss Ambassdor trip to Kaliningrad 1,2,3, March 2005 FOR LIMITED USE 9 December, 2004.

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kaliningrad region economic performance and business climate

KALININGRAD REGION: Economic Performance and Business Climate

An overview for potential investors


Dmitry Gavrilin, EBRD, London

For Swiss Ambassdor trip to Kaliningrad 1,2,3, March 2005


9 December, 2004

kaliningrad is part of the baltic region
Kaliningrad is Part of the Baltic Region_______________________________________________
kaliningrad region basic facts
Kaliningrad Region: Basic Facts______________________________________________
  • The 750th anniversary of Königsberg in 2005
  • Exclave of Russia / semi-enclave of the EU
  • Part of North West Federal District (total 11 regions)
  • Territory - 15,100 sq. km (0,1% of the Russian Federation)
  • Population - 946,800 (0,6% of the Russian Federation)
  • Nominal GRP in 2002 - appr. USD 1,100 mln.
  • Special Economic Zone (SEZ) regime
  • 95% of the world’s amber reserves is concentrated here
  • The second largest Russian port on the Baltic Sea
  • Kaliningrad is home for the Russian Federation Baltic Navy
rapid economic growth after the 1998 crisis
Rapid Economic Growth After the 1998 Crisis_______________________________________________
  • The drop in the ruble’s exchange rate following the August, 17, 1998 crisis had a mostly favorable effect on the growth of output in the Kaliningrad Region, which outperforms many other Russian regions.
  • Economic developments of the last three or four years are rather encouraging. Gross regional product grew 6.8% in 1999, 14.4% in 2000, 6.4% in 2001, and 10.1% in 2002. It is worth mentioning that, whereas until 1998 the Kaliningrad GRP tended to fall faster, it grew considerably faster than the country average since 1999
  • For the first half of 2004 the figures are even more impressive: industrial production index is 124 % to the same period of the last year, fixed capital investments has grown by 2,6 % and foreign trade turnover increased by 43 % !
changes in russian gdp and kaliningrad s grp
Changes in Russian GDP and Kaliningrad’s GRP_______________________________________________

Changes in industrial production, % y-o-y

Sources: Goskomstat (2004), Kaliningrad oblkomstat (2004)

kaliningrad foreign trade in 1996 2003 usd mln
Kaliningrad Foreign Trade in 1996 - 2003 (USD, mln)_______________________________________________

Source: Kaliningrad Oblkomstat (2004)

major sectors and companies
Major Sectors and Companies _______________________________________________
  • Thestrongest sectors of theregional economy are:
  • Fishing industry
  • Machinery building
  • Pulp & paper industry
  • Food production
  • Energy and fuel

Two thirds of theindustrial output of the city is producedby 7- 8companies:

OAO "Atlantrybflot", fishing & transport

OAO "Baltkran", port equipment

OAO "Cepruss", pulp and paper

OAO "Zapryba", "SPI-RVVK",

"Yantarenergo", energy provider,

"Lukoil", oil company

Source: Kaliningrad City Hall, Economic Department

business climate where do we stand
Business Climate: Where Do we Stand ?_______________________________________________
  • Geopolitical situation and relatively cheap labor force have been promising Kaliningrad the future of the Hong Kong on the Baltic Sea. However, Kaliningrad’s administrative and technical infrastructure remains underdeveloped.
  • Business environment improved considerably during the last 5 years due to
    • restructuring of the regional economy and effect of Special Economic Zone regime
    • general stabilization of the socioeconomic situation in the Russian Federation
  • Despite obvious problems of regulatory environment, the region retains an enormous potential for growth in investments. Some of the large foreign investors have already been successful!
corporate kaliningrad is getting dynamic
Corporate Kaliningrad is getting dynamic _______________________________________________

Changes in federal legislation aimed at reduction of tax burden and streamlining the procedure of business establishment, economic growth in Russia since 1999 for five consequent years as well as establishing of the Special Economic Zone in Kaliningrad have led to increase in business activities including foreign investments in the region:

Ca. 1,400 of the enterprises were registered in the region in 2002. 86% of them are concentrated in Kaliningrad city.

The industrial production of the Region is still determined to the great extent by a dozen of large enterprises

The small businesses(About 46,000 entrepreneurs) have been successfully going on in Kaliningrad, it influences significantly the formation of the city budget

The businessmen from 37 countries took part in organisation of joint ventures. The leading position on the enterprises with foreign investment held Poland-416, Lithuania - 305, Germany, - 260. The share of foreign partners in the foundation capital of the enterprises was about 37%.

foreign direct investment in kaliningrad
Foreign Direct Investment in Kaliningrad _______________________________________________

Sources: Goskomstat (2004), Kaliningrad oblkomstat (2004)

foreign investment in kaliningrad in usd millions
Foreign investment in Kaliningrad in USD millions_______________________________________________

Foreign investment by investing countries in 2003

Foreign investment in 2003 by type

Sources: Goskomstat (2004), Kaliningrad oblkomstat (2004)

international companies in kaliningrad
International companies in Kaliningrad_______________________________________________

The international presence in the Region is represented by small and medium businesses and covers a wide range of sectors. Most intensively foreign investments were made into trade (export of food stuffs and import of raw materials), public catering, and industry. Some examples:

  • The most significant Kaliningrad firms with the German participation:
  • "Baltkran", a manufacturer of portal cranes and oil-producing equipment
  • "Baltik GmbH", a construction company
  • "Prigge Trans", road hauls
  • "Palve", an engineering company,
  • "Schnieder Reisen Kaliningrad", travel.
  • Production of cars and car parts becomes a priority area of the Kaliningrad Region’s industry:
  • On 22 Oktober 1999 “BMW AG” opened a car production line at “Avtotor” plant.
  • KIA Motors assembles various models in Kaliningrad since 2000
  • General Motors’ Joint Venture is manufacturing "Hummer“ since the beginning of 2004

Source: Regional Administration (http://www.gov.kaliningrad.ru)

future of kaliningrad challenges for policymakers
Future of Kaliningrad: challenges for policymakers_______________________________________________

Current policy choices are driven by the following developments:



Policy making on federal level, including diversification, competitiveness debate, security

Enlargement of the European Union to the East and consequent changes in the neighboring Poland and Lithuania

Principal - agent problem

(example: national security considerations vs. openness of the region, etc)



Negotiations can take long

time to complete

Russia’s upcoming accession to the WTO that will lead to comply with WTO regulations dealing with free economic zones

The need of clear strategy for Kaliningrad due to its special location