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Advanced Placement Comparative Government. Review: China. Sovereignty, Authority, and Power. Characterized by Dynastic Cycles : Long periods of family rule punctuated by times of chaos.

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Advanced placement comparative government

Advanced PlacementComparative Government

Review: China

Sovereignty authority and power
Sovereignty, Authority, and Power

  • Characterized by Dynastic Cycles: Long periods of family rule punctuated by times of chaos.

  • Power determined by the Mandate of Heaven or the right to rule as seen by ancestors that guided the empire from the heavens.

  • Authority rested in the hands of the emperor and elaborate bureaucracy.

Sovereignty authority and power legitimacy
Sovereignty, Authority, and Power: Legitimacy

  • Power passed through hereditary connections.

  • When things went well, the emperor’s authority was accepted.

  • Peasants did not determine legitimacy: Unrest served as a message that the emperor was failing.

Sovereignty authority and power1
Sovereignty, Authority, and Power

  • Revolution of 1911: Legitimacy rested on popular new democratic government.

  • Chaos ensued, brought on Maoism: stressed the importance of staying connected to the peasants through the mass line.

  • Today, the Politburo remains the legitimate source of power.

  • Authoritarian power over market-based economy.

  • Corruption

Sovereignty authority and power historical traditions
Sovereignty, Authority, and PowerHistorical Traditions

  • Authoritarian Power

  • Confucianism

  • Bureaucratic hierarchy based on scholarship/merit

  • The Middle Kingdom (Zhongguo)

  • Communist Ideologies

Sovereignty authority and power political culture
Sovereignty, Authority, and PowerPolitical Culture

  • Geographic Influences:

  • Access to oceans/ice free ports.

  • Many large navigable rivers.

  • Major geographical/climate splits between north and south.

  • Geographic isolation of the western part of the country.

  • Mountain ranges, deserts, and oceans separate China from other countries.

Sovereignty authority and power historical eras
Sovereignty, Authority, and PowerHistorical Eras

  • Dynastic rule: Confucian values- Order, harmony, and a strong sense of hierarchy.

  • Resistance to imperialism.

  • Maoism: Collectivism (the good of the community is valued over the individual), struggle and activism, mass line (line of communication between party leaders and the peasants. The peasants would in turn tell the leaders their thoughts.), egalitarianism (belief in the equality of all people), and self reliance.

  • Deng Xiaoping Theory: “It doesn’t matter if the cat is black or white as long as it catches mice”.

  • Importance of informal relationships (factions).

Political and economic change
Political and Economic Change

  • Until 19th century, China has a long and stable history (dynastic cycles).

  • First half of the 20th century: Radical violent and chaotic. Revolutions in 1911 and 1949 had 3 themes:

  • Nationalism: Sun Yat-sen.

  • Establishing a new political community: Democratic or Communist?

  • Socioeconomic development: Reestablish economy and society after imperialistic rule.

Political and economic change the founding of the people s republic of china
Political and Economic Change : The Founding of the People’s Republic of China

  • Born from a civil war between the KMT and the CCP.

  • KMT Forced to Formosa (Taiwan) “Two China’s” 1972.

  • The Soviet Model 1949-57: Land, Civil reform and Five-year plans.

  • The Great Leap Forward (backward) 1955-66: Freed China from Soviet control- Economic development, mass mobilization, cadres, decentralization.

Political and economic change the cultural revolution 1966 76
Political and Economic Change: People’s Republic of China The Cultural Revolution 1966-76

  • Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping: Market oriented policies.

  • Mao instituted political and social change:

  • The ethic of struggle

  • Mass line

  • Collectivism

  • Egalitarianism

  • Service to society

  • Remove all vestiges of old China (inequality) and stress education.

Political and economic change mao s death 1976
Political and Economic Change: People’s Republic of China Mao’s Death 1976

  • Factions:

  • Radicals: Gang of Four supported the Cultural Revolution (arrested).

  • Military: Lin Biao- Dies mysteriously.

  • Moderates: Zhou Enlai dies shortly after Mao.

  • Den Xiaoping 1978: Four Modernizations- Industry, agriculture, science, and the military has led to an open door trade policy, education reforms, and Institutionalization of the Revolution. (Goals of the revolution were merged with the ways of old China- decentralized the government, modified elections and infused capitalism.).

Citizens society and the state the growth of civil society
Citizens, Society and the State People’s Republic of China The Growth of Civil Society

  • Non-existent under Mao.

  • New technology influencing civil society. (internet, cell phones, etc.)

  • Private organizations appearing: Social problems: AIDS, the environment, legal reform.

  • 1990s: NGO’s allowed.

  • Religion? Tibet (Buddhists) and Falon Gong.

Citizens society and the state protests
Citizens, Society and the State People’s Republic of China Protests

  • Tiananmen Square 1989: Massive repression against any group that defies party leadership.

  • Today, massive labor strikes pose serious problems for the Chinese party leadership.

Citizens society and the state ethnic and urban rural cleavages
Citizens, Society and the State People’s Republic of China Ethnic and Urban-Rural Cleavages

  • Majority: Han Chinese 92%

  • Minorities: 8% (100 million)- autonomous areas of Tibet and Xinjiang resist Chinese control.

  • 55 officially recognized minority groups and most live on the outer regions of China’s borders. PRC is concerned that Uighur Muslim militant’s wish to have an independent state.

  • Urban- Rural areas suffer huge economic disparities- causes friction.

  • Wen Jiabao: A new socialist countryside.

Citizens society and the state political participation
Citizens, Society and the State People’s Republic of China Political Participation

  • CCP: Largest political party in the world (58 million), but only comprise 7% of the population.

  • New members recruited from the Youth League.

  • Cadres: The permanent, professional members of a party.

  • Technocrats: People with technical training that have climbed the of the party bureaucracy.

  • Less than 40% of party membership are peasants, but still make up the largest group in the CCP

  • 20%- Women in the CCP

  • 2001- Allow capitalists to join CCP

Political institutions
Political Institutions People’s Republic of China

  • Regime: Authoritarian.

  • Difficult to govern a large territory from a central location.

  • Change from command to market system also problematic.

  • Trend: Decentralization or devolution of power to sub-national governments.

  • Local governments ignore Beijing.

  • The CCP keeps the PRC connected.

  • Integrates the military into the political hierarchy.

Political institutions the ccp
Political Institutions: People’s Republic of China The CCP

  • Elaborate hierarchy:

  • National Party Congress: 2000 delegates chosen from lower level Congresses and meets every five years. Elects members of the Central Committee.

  • Central Committee: 340 members meet (plenum) annually for a week. Choose Politburo and Standing Committee members.

  • Politburo/Standing Committee: Most powerful organizations that dictate public policy. Politburo, (24 members) selects the Standing Committee (7 members). Meet in secret.

Political institutions non communist parties and elections
Political Institutions People’s Republic of China Non-Communist Parties and Elections

  • 8 Democratic Parties allowed: Based on special group membership- intellectuals or businessmen.

  • Elections legitimize the PRC: Direct elections only at the local levels. The CCP controls the commissions that run elections and the candidates on the ballots.

  • Village level: May now elect their own local officials by secret ballot.

Political institutions the political elite and factionalism
Political Institutions: The Political Elite and Factionalism

  • Mao and the Old Guard: Guanxi- networking.

  • Nomenklatura: System of recruitment.

  • Leaders communicate through Guanxi or patron client networks.

  • Guanxi is based on ties between individuals and ideology differences and similarities. Causes factionalism.

  • Conservatives: No Democracy. No leader.

  • Reformers/open door: Supports capitalism, wary of democracy. Hu Jintao/Wen Jiabao.

  • Liberals: Accepting of political liberties. Hu Youbang and Zhao Ziyang.

  • Fang-shou: Tightening up, loosening up cycle. (Dynastic Cycle?)

Political institutions corruption and interest groups
Political Institutions: Corruption and Interest Groups Factionalism

  • Guanxi and economic boom.

  • Bribes and corruption.

  • Hu Jintao: Anti-corruption campaign- thousands arrested. (tainted food)

  • Interest groups only allowed with party-state permission.

  • Mass organizations form around occupations or social categories. (300,000 groups)

  • All-China Federation of Trade Council

  • All-China Women’s Federation

  • Danwei- How the party controls the people in urban areas- social units based on a person’s place of work.

  • Relationship between the state and the organizations reflects state corporatism.

Political institutions1
Political Institutions Factionalism

Three Parallel Hierarchies:

  • The Communist Party: Dominates

  • The state or government

  • The People’s Liberation Army

  • Dual role: vertical supervision of the next higher level of government and horizontal supervision of the Communist party at their own level.

  • Organization of the party and state are similar to the USSR. China’s policymaking is really controlled by factions and personal relationships.

Political institutions government structure
Political Institutions: FactionalismGovernment Structure

  • Three Branches are controlled by the party.

    Legislative Branch

  • The People’s Congresses: People’s National Congress at the top. (Provincial, city, local) Select the President and Vice President.

    The Executive Branch

  • President and Vice President serve 5 year terms, with a two term limit. (45 years old) Ceremonial position held by senior party leaders. Premier is head of government (appointed by the president). Cadres carry out policies.

    The Judicial Branch

  • People’s court system: Four tiered system (People’s Congresses) People’s Procuratorate provides prosecutors and defenders.

  • Conviction rate of 99%- Harsh.

  • Center of reform.

Political institutions the people s liberation army
Political Institutions: FactionalismThe People’s Liberation Army

  • Ground, air, and naval armed forces.

  • Army: 3 million active- 12 million reserve

  • Military budget growing rapidly (18% of GDP)

  • No formal political power- never threatened the party

  • Central Military Commission (Deng Xiaoping)

Policy issues
Policy Issues Factionalism

  • Democracy and human rights:

    Pull between political and economic rights.

  • Some input by the NPC is accepted by the Politburo.

  • More emphasis on laws and legal procedures.

  • Village elections are now semi-competitive.

  • Economic: Followed the Iron Rice Bowl or cradle to the grave theory- Changed to the socialist market economy.

  • Household responsibility system: Families take full charge of the production and marketing of crops.

  • Private Business: Urban co-ops, service organizations, and rural industries run as capitalist enterprises.

  • Township and Village enterprises- Run by local governments and private entrepreneurs.

  • Problems: Unemployment and inequality (floating population: rural migrants looking for work), inefficiency, pollution, and product safety.

Foreign policy international trade
Foreign Policy/International Trade Factionalism

  • Until 1976: Provided support for third world revolutionary movements. (Korea/Vietnam)

  • US/Chinese Relations: Detente in 1972 has led to an imbalance of trade situation.

  • Eighteen Special Economic Zones: Foreign investors receive tax breaks/incentives.

  • Hong Kong

  • Taiwan