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World War I. World War I. Introduction WWI (1914/17-18) Battle Front Origins-Wilson The United States and War Home Front Big Government Economy Society Conclusion. Background on WWI. Many long-term causes of war: Rise of Germany and Italy Imperialism Arms Race Alliance System

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world war i1
World War I
  • Introduction
  • WWI (1914/17-18)
    • Battle Front
      • Origins-Wilson
      • The United States and War
    • Home Front
      • Big Government
      • Economy
      • Society
  • Conclusion
background on wwi
Background on WWI
  • Many long-term causes of war:
    • Rise of Germany and Italy
    • Imperialism
    • Arms Race
    • Alliance System
    • Nationalism
u s president
U.S. President
  • Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921)
  • Goal: United States neutrality
the u s declares war
The U.S. Declares War
  • Further sinking of U.S. merchant ships and Russia’s withdrawal from the war hardened America’s resolve to enter the war
  • April 2, 1917 President Woodrow Wilson asked Congress to declare war against the Central Powers.
  • “…For the rights of nations great and small and the privilege of men everywhere to choose their way of life and of obedience. The world must be made safe for democracy.”

-President Woodrow Wilson

world war i2
World War I
  • Introduction
  • WWI (1914/17-18)
    • Battle Front
      • Origins-Wilson
      • The United States and War
    • Home Front
      • Big Government
      • Economy
      • Society
  • Conclusion
wwi alliances and major powers
WWI Alliances and Major Powers
  • Allied (Entente) Powers
    • Great Britain
    • France
    • Russia
    • United States
  • Central Powers
    • Germany
    • Austria-Hungary
    • Turkey
where did russia go
Where did Russia Go?
  • Communist overthrew the Russian government
u s contribution to war effort
U.S. Contribution to War Effort
  • General John Pershing led U.S. soldiers (about 2 million) in Europe
  • American troops saw combat in France as they helped to stem German attacks
  • Supplies and U.S. troops provided emotional lift
  • Uprisings in Austria-Hungary and Ottoman empire forced both countries to exit the war by early November 1918
  • Mutiny at the Germany naval base in Kiel led to the German Emperor to step down on Nov. 9th.
  • A cease-fire ending the fighting went into effect Nov. 11, 1918
world war i3
World War I
  • Introduction
  • WWI (1914/17-18)
    • Battle Front
      • Origins-Wilson
      • The United States and War
    • Home Front
      • Big Government
      • Economy
      • Society
  • Conclusion
selective service act draft 1917
Selective Service Act (Draft)1917
  • males 18-45 eligible
  • Lottery system used
  • 1 in 5 draftees were immigrants
how to pay for wwi
How to Pay for WWI
  • Cost of war: $35.5 billion
  • Income tax rates were raised
    • Top tax rate rose to 63%
  • War bonds
  • 2/3 of funds were borrowed
committee for public information 1917
Committee for Public Information (1917)
  • Headed by George Creel
  • A government-sponsored propaganda agency designed to promote support for American involvement in the war.
food administration
Food Administration
  • headed by Herbert Hoover
  • Victory Gardens
  • Slogans were common:
    • Meatless Mondays
    • Wheatless Wednesdays
    • Serve beans, by all means
fuel administration
Fuel Administration
  • Day Light Savings to preserve fuel
  • Self-rationing of fuel
    • Heatless Mondays
fuel administration1
Fuel Administration
  • Day Light Savings to preserve fuel
  • Self-rationing of fuel
    • Heatless Mondays
national war labor board
National War Labor Board
  • Mediated disputes between labor and industry
  • Improve wages and adopted 8hr workday.
  • Unions agreed not to strike during the war.
espionage act of 1917
Espionage Act of 1917
  • Made it illegal to
    • Aid the enemy
    • Provide false reports
    • Interfere with the war effort
sedition act of 1917
Sedition Act of 1917
  • Made it illegal to
    • Speak out publicly against the war
check up
Check Up!
  • How did the role of government change during the first World War?
civil liberties at risk
Civil Liberties at Risk?

Schenck v. United States, 1919

  • Charles Schenck mailed pamphlets to draftees telling them the draft was wrong urging them to write protest letters.
  • Convicted of violating Espionage Act
civil liberties at risk1
Civil Liberties at Risk?

Schenck v. United States, 1919

  • Supreme Courts Decision
    • 9-0 upholds conviction
  • “The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theatre and causing a panic…The question in every case is whether the words used in such circumstance and are of such a nature as to create a clear and present danger that will bring about the substantive evils that Congress has a right to prevent…When a nation is at war, many things that might be said in time of peace are such a hindrance to its efforts that their utterance will be endured so long as men fight…”
    • Justice Oliver Wendell
check up1
Check Up!
  • How are some rights curtailed during times in which national security are at risk?
world war i4
World War I
  • Introduction
  • WWI (1914/17-18)
    • Battle Front
      • Origins-Wilson
      • The United States and War
    • Home Front
      • Big Government
      • Economy
      • Society
  • Conclusion
economy
Economy
  • Economic Boom
    • Manufacturing increased 33%
    • Real wages increased 20%
economy1
Economy
  • Farmers Prospered
    • Many farmers took out loans to expand production and buy additional land
world war i5
World War I
  • Introduction
  • WWI (1914/17-18)
    • Battle Front
      • Origins-Wilson
      • The United States and War
    • Home Front
      • Big Government
      • Economy
      • Society
  • Conclusion
race relations
Race Relations
  • Great Migration
    • 500,000 African Americans migrated to northern cities looking for factory jobs

“Great Migration” by Jacob Lawrence

women s roles
Women’s Roles
  • 11,000 served in Navy overseas
  • 1 million worked in industry
  • Began final push for suffrage
anti german hysteria patriotism turned ugly
Anti-German Hysteria(Patriotism Turned Ugly)
  • Americans began to fear all things German
    • Sauerkraut = Liberty Cabbage
    • Hamburgers = Liberty Sandwiches
  • Some towns with German names were changed
  • Some states stopped teaching the German language in public schools
anti german hysteria patriotism turned ugly1
Anti-German Hysteria(Patriotism Turned Ugly)
  • Support for prohibition of alcohol received a final push during the war
  • Names of brewing companies
    • Pabst, Schlitz, Anheuser-Busch
  • 18th Amendment was passed by Congress in 1917; it went into effect in 1920
check up2
Check Up!
  • How did the U.S. change in the time the country was involved in WWI?
world war i6
World War I
  • Introduction
  • WWI (1914/17-18)
    • Battle Front
      • Origins-Wilson
      • The United States and War
    • Home Front
      • Big Government
      • Economy
      • Society
  • The Treaty of Versailles
  • Conclusion
treaty of versailles
Treaty of Versailles
  • Allied powers met at Versailles
  • Goal: Negotiate the peace with Germany.
  • Wilson brought with him 14 points he wished to see in the final treaty.
wilson s 14 points
Wilson’s 14 Points
  • Peace treaties that have no hidden provisions or secret elements.
  • Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters, alike in peace and in war, except as the seas may be closed.
  • The removal of all economic barriers, and establishment of equality of trade.
  • National armaments should be reduced.
  • Adjustment of colonial claims, that in determining all such questions of sovereignty, the interests of the people concerned must have equal weight with the claims of the government whose title is to be determined.
  • Russian territory should be evacuated, and Russia welcomed into the society of free nations.
  • Belgium should be evacuated and restored.
  • All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored.
  • Italy's borders would be redrawn to established areas.
  • The autonomy Austria-Hungary should be protected.
  • Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be restored and given freedoms. The countries in the Balkans should be allowed to negotiate freely to resolve their conflicts.
  • The Turkish portion of the Ottoman Empire should have a secure sovereignty, but the other nationalities which are under Turkish rule should have an undoubted security of life and an opportunity of independent development, and the Dardanelles should be permanently opened as passage to the ships and commerce of all nations.
  • An independent Polish state should be erected including the territories inhabited by Polish populations, which should have free access to the sea.
  • The League of Nations should be formed.
treaty of versailles1
Treaty of Versailles
  • Germany would return all captured land
  • Germany must pay reparations $33 billion to the Allied Powers.
  • Germany’s army and navy would be limited in size.
  • Creation of the League of Nations.
treaty of versailles2
Treaty of Versailles
  • Germany would return all captured land
  • Germany must pay reparations $33 billion to the Allied Powers.
  • Germany’s army and navy would be limited in size.
  • Creation of the League of Nations.
  • League of Nations
    • Members will reduce armaments
    • Members will protect each others from aggression.
    • Colonies of the Central Powers will now be under the supervision of the league.
    • Parts of the Ottoman Empire will be granted their independence under the supervision of the league.
treaty of sevres
Treaty of Sevres
  • Dissolved Ottoman Empire
check up3
Check Up!
  • What were the main results of the treaties that ended World War I.
check up4
Check Up!
  • What were the main results of the treaties that ended World War I.
  • Answer:
    • Germany was responsible for WWI and was severely punished.
    • Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire lost significant land
    • New nations were formed throughout Europe
    • The League of Nations was formed to help promote international security.
the treaty in the senate
The Treaty in the Senate
  • Wilson returned to the U.S. to build support for the Treaty.
  • After making a national speech tour, Wilson suffered a severe stroke.
  • The Senate would have the final say on the bill.
the treaty in the senate1
The Treaty in the Senate
  • There were three main opinions within the Senate.
  • Democrats - supported the treaty without changes
  • Republicans - opposed the treaty.
  • Republicans - support a revised treaty that did not require members of the league to protect each outer from aggression.
cartoon 1
Cartoon #1
  • What is the artist’s main point?
  • Who supports the treaty according the cartoon?
  • Who opposes the treaty according the cartoon?
  • What is wrong with the treaty according to the cartoon?
check up5
Check Up!
  • There were three main opinions within the Senate.
    • Democrats who supported the treaty without changes
    • Republicans who opposed the treaty.
    • Republicans who would support a revised treaty that did not require members of the league to protect each outer from aggression.
  • Examine 5 cartoons and conclude, who opposed the treaty, who favored the treaty, and what fault did some people have in the treaty.
check up6
Check Up!
  • Review your data then answer the following questions:
  • Who opposed the treaty?
  • Who favored the treaty?
  • What fault did some people have with the treaty?
world war i7
World War I
  • Introduction
  • WWI (1914/17-18)
    • Battle Front
      • Origins-Wilson
      • The United States and War
    • Home Front
      • Big Government
      • Economy
      • Society
  • The Treaty of Versailles
  • Conclusion
review and evaluation
Review and Evaluation
  • World War I began in 1914; the United States became involved in 1917
  • The war had a major impact on the Home Front
  • Were the changes to the U.S. positive or negative?
websites of interest
Websites of Interest
  • Spartacus Educational Website: World War I
  • First WorldWar.com
  • Lost Liners: The Lusitania
  • Woodrow Wilson
source
Source
  • http://college.cengage.com/history/lecturepoints/index.html