COMPARISON BETWEEN MSF AND RO. Multi-Stage Flash. Reverse Osmosis. KEY ISSUES FOR MEE PROCESS. Main reasons of the enormous diffusion of MSF in MENA countries are:. reliability long-time experience high capacity scarce importance of energy saving.
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Main reasons of the enormous diffusion of MSF in MENA countries are:
Multiple Effect Evaporation process has many attractive characteristics in comparison with Multi-Stage Flash
ADDITIONAL REMARKS FOR SMALL SCALE APPLICATIONS
Capacity up to 1,000 m³/d [domestic water needs of a community of more than 5,000 people]
In general solar energy can feed any desalination process
Systems for the generation of high temperature heat (linear parabolic collectors, solar towers)
MEE driven by low temperature solar thermal collectors, both flat plate and evacuated tubular
The values of the technical parameters and solar irradiance assumed to estimate the water production cost, are reported below.
Annual solar energy (kWh/m²)
PV modules efficiency
Motive steam temperature for MEE (°C)
Solar collector average efficiency
Electric energy need in RO (kWh/m³)
Electric energy need in MEE (kWh/m³)
Thermal energy need in MEE (kWh/m³)
Values of the common economic parameters are listed in the table given below.
System life (years)
Interest rate (%)
Maintenance (% of plant cost)
PV modules cost for a 10 MW size ($/Wp table given below.
PV modules cost for a 100 kW size ($/Wp
Battery cost (% of modules cost)
Annual rate of batteries replacement (%)
Electronic device cost (% of PV plant cost)
RO plant cost for a 10,000 m³/d size ($/(m³/d))
Membranes cost (% of RO plant cost)
al rate of membranes replacement (%)
Values assigned to estimate the water cost by the PV/RO system.
Collector cost fo table given below.
r a 100,000 m² area ($/m²)
Collector cost for a 10,000 m² area ($/m²)
Storage cost (% of collector cost)
MEE plant cost for a 10,000 m³/d size ($/m³/d)
Values assigned to estimate the water cost by the ST/MEE system
the capacity varies between 500 and 5,000 m³/d, is shown in the
Specific plant cost as a function of plant capacity by means of two solar systems (PV/RO and ST/MEE) and a conventional one.
Operation and maintenance specific cost as a function of plant capacity by means of two solar systems (PV/RO and ST/MEE) and a conventional one.
reference value for the water production cost can be assumed equal to 1 $/m³ in case of medium to small size desalination processes connected to the electric grid
desalination system typically used in stand-alone configuration is a reverse osmosis process coupled with a diesel powered generator; due to the additional charges for transporting and fuel storage, water production cost can rise up to 1.5 $/m³
Competitiveness of low temperature solar thermal collectors driven desalination systems
Multiple effect evaporation process
By far the most critical system component
New Generation of Solar Thermal Systems
18 organisations out of 14 different European countries
Last but not the least my thanks are due to all the participants.