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Geoscience. Unit 1 – Foundations of Geoscience, Metric System and Earth Chemistry. Earth Science/Geoscience. What is it? Why should we study it?. Who am I and what does Geoscience have to do with it?. Read and highlight the handout “Why Earth Science?”

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Geoscience

Geoscience

Unit 1 – Foundations of Geoscience, Metric System and Earth Chemistry


Earth science geoscience
Earth Science/Geoscience

What is it?

Why should we study it?


Who am i and what does geoscience have to do with it
Who am I and what does Geoscience have to do with it?

  • Read and highlight the handout “Why Earth Science?”

    • Answer the following questions (minimum 4-5 sentences per question):

      1. Who you are as a person? Tell me about yourself.

      2. How does earth science affect you personally?

      3. What you are most interested in learning about this year and why?


Careers related to earth science
Careers related to Earth Science

  • If I love Geoscience, what kind of job could I get?

  • Homework: Research and list 15 different careers related to geoscience/earth science. Write one brief sentence for each describing what the job entails.


Some more class foundations
Some more class foundations

  • Review class/course expectations

  • Get to know your textbook


Class foundations continued
Class foundations continued

  • Shape Up!

  • Group textbook scavenger hunt


Scientific method

Scientific Method

Unit One: Scientific Method


How do scientists study
How Do Scientists Study?

Scientific Inquiry always begins with…….

OBSERVATION


What is science
What is science?

  • Have you ever had a question about how something works?

    • If you answered yes to this questions than you have behaved in a similar manner as a scientist.

      Science is about understanding how the universe works and the reasons for why things work the way they do. Science is a body of knowledge and an organized method for finding answers to problems.

    • Why is Las Vegas so hot and dry?

    • Why are some lavas that erupt smooth and flat, and others are round and pillow-like?


The scientific method
The Scientific Method

  • The process by which a scientist finds an explanation to an event.

    It is ONE way of approaching and solving a problem, or answering a question, that is logical and straightforward and can be applied to both everyday situations and specialized research topics.


Steps to the scientific method
Steps to the Scientific Method

  • Ask a Question

  • Do Background Research

  • Construct a Hypothesis

  • Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment

  • AnalyzeYour Data and Draw a Conclusion

  • Communicate Your Results


Steps to the scientific method1
Steps to the scientific method

  • Question: What is your purpose?

  • Research: What is already known about this topic?

  • Hypothesis:Based on your research what do you predict is going to happen.

  • Experiment: Test your predictions.

  • Analyze: Analyze your Data

  • Conclusion: Make the simplest conclusion possible based on the analysis of your data


Must be able to test a hypothesis
Must be able to test a hypothesis!!!!

  • A scientific hypothesis must be testable!

  • This means there must be a way to prove the hypothesis wrong


Are these scientific hypotheses
Are these scientific hypotheses?

  • Atoms are the smallest particle of matter.

  • The universe is surrounded by a second universe, the existence of which cannot be detected by scientists.

  • The Incredible Hulk is the best super-hero ever in the world.


  • A hypothesis that is tested over and over without being contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

  • If a scientist finds evidence that contradicts a hypothesis, law, or principle, then the law, hypothesis or principle must be changed or abandoned.

  • Scientists must accept their findings even if they would like them to be different.


Experiments
Experiments contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

  • In experiments we have a control and 2 types of variables

    • Control is an trial of the experiment that is closest to the natural conditions

    • Independent variable is the variable the scientists manipulates.

    • Dependant variable results from the manipulation of the experiment


How do scientists study1
How Do Scientists Study? contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

Scientific Inquiry always begins with…….

OBSERVATION

It is also an important part of an experiment.


Vocabulary
VOCABULARY contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

OBSERVATION – use of the senses to gather and record information about structures or processes in nature


Observation
OBSERVATION contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

QUALITATIVE OBSERVATION – descriptive explanation of quality of something such as shape, color, texture….

Red dot, Oval shaped, Smooth surface


Observation1
OBSERVATION contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

QUANTITATIVE OBSERVATION – of, relating to or involving the measurement of quantity or amount

  • DATA!!!

    Mass (50 g), Volume (35 mL),Temperature (25 degrees C), Time (2 hr)


Scientific measurement
Scientific Measurement contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

Collecting data often requires measurement…What can you measure?

  • Length (distance)

  • Volume

  • Mass (weight)

  • Temperature

  • Time


What is earth science
What is Earth Science? contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

  • Earth Science is the name for the group of sciences that deals with Earth and its neighbors in space 4 areas of study

    • Geology: Study of Earth, its matter, and the processes that form and change Earth

      • Physical Geology- Study of materials that make up Earth and forces that shape the planet

      • Historical Geology- Study of physical and biological changes of our planet over time

    • Meteorology: Study of weather and the forces and processes that cause it.

    • Astronomy: Study of objects in space

    • Oceanography: Study of the Earth’s oceans


Formation of the earth
Formation of the Earth contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

  • Earth is one of ? planets in our solar system

  • Earth is believed by scientists to have formed at the same time as the other planets.

    • Nebular hypothesis- Earth formed from an enormous rotating cloud called the solar nebula. This cloud was made up of mostly hydrogen and helium and very few heavier elements.


Density stratification
Density Stratification contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

  • Over time the heavier elements sank into the core of the Earth while the lighter, less dense materials floated toward the surface

  • This led to the division of layers within the Earth system


Earth s four spheres
Earth’s Four Spheres contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

  • Hydrosphere- The water portion of our planet

  • Atmosphere- The gaseous portion of our planet

  • Geosphere- The rocky solid portion of our planet

    • Further divided into- the core, mantle, and crust

  • Biosphere-Includes all life on Earth


Layers of the earth
Layers of the Earth contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!


Forces that affect our earth
Forces That affect our Earth contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

  • Destructive Forces- weathering and erosion work to wear away high points and flatten out the surface

  • Constructive Forces- mountain building and volcanism build up the surface by raising the land and depositing new material in the form of lava


Earth as a system
Earth as a System contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

  • System can be any size group of interacting parts that form a complex whole

  • Earth system is powered by 2 sources

    • One is the sun- which drives the external processes that occur in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and at Earth’s surface

    • Second is Earth’s Interior- heat remains in the core and mantle of the Earth from the time it was formed


  • QUESTIONS? contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!


Observations
Observations contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

An observation is the gathering of information by using our five senses:

  • Sight

  • Smell

  • Hearing

  • Taste

  • Touch

    There are two types of observations:

  • Qualitative

  • quantitative


  • Observation2
    OBSERVATION contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

    QUALITATIVE OBSERVATION – descriptive explanation of quality of something such as shape, color, texture….

    Red dot, Oval shaped, Smooth surface


    Observation3
    OBSERVATION contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

    QUANTITATIVE OBSERVATION – of, relating to or involving the measurement of quantity or amount

    • DATA!!!

      Mass (50 g), Volume (35 mL),Temperature (25 degrees C), Time (2 hr)


    Which is better
    Which is better? contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

    • Both types of observations are valuable in science. In an experiment though, quantitative observations can be precisely and objectively compared.

    • Qualitative: The road is long. (describes)

    • Quantitative: The road is 5 km long. (measures)

    • Some things are easier to quantify than others. Scientists use innovative ways of turning qualitative to quantitative.


    Inferences
    Inferences contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

    • Inferences are an explanation for an observation that you have made.

    • They are based on your past experiences and prior knowledge.

    • Inferences are often changed when new observations are made.

    • Again, observations are information we gather directly through our five senses….inferences help explain these observations.


    Here are some examples
    Here are some examples!! contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

    • Observation: The grass on the school’s front lawn is wet.

    • Possible Inferences:

      • It rained.

      • The sprinler was on.

      • There is dew on the grass from the morning.

      • A dog urinated on the grass!

    • All of these inferences could possible explain why the grass is wet. They are all based on prior experiences. We have all seen rain, sprinklers, morning dew, and dogs going to the bathroom.


    Here are some examples1
    Here are some examples!! contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

    • Observation: The school alarm is going off.

    • Possible Inferences:

      • The school is on fire.

      • We are having a fire drill.

      • A student pulled the fire alarm.

    • Again, these are all logical explanations for why the fire alarm is going off.


    Metric system

    Metric System contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!


    Scientific measurement1
    Scientific Measurement contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

    Collecting data often requires measurement…What can you measure?

    • Length (distance)

    • Volume

    • Mass (weight)

    • Temperature

    • Time


    History
    History contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

    • At the end of the 18th century in France, scientists created the metric system.

    • It was designed with several features in mind.

      • 1. that each type of measurement (mass, volume, and length) would only have one unit; for example, length would be measured in meters instead of in feet, inches, rods, ells, hands, or any other specialized measures that may or may not be easy to convert between

      • 2. the metric system would be based on units of 10 for easy conversions


    Who uses the metric system
    Who uses the Metric System? contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

    • SCIENTISTS (and science students)

    • Almost every country EXCEPT the United States.

      • The US uses the English unit of measurement which is based on the lengths, weights, areas and volumes of everyday objects.

  • Using the same system of measurement gives scientists a common language.

  • ·    In 1960 at the International Convention, the metric system was adopted as the “International system of Units” or SI.

  • ·SI is based on units of ten.


  • Length
    Length contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

    • The basic unit of length in the metric system is the meter (m)

    • The meter is = to 39.4inches


    Volume
    Volume contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

    • Volume is the amount of space an object takes up.

    • The basic unit of volume is the liter (L)

      • The liter is usually used for measuring the volume of liquids

    • The volume of solids can be measured in

      cubic centimeters (cc or cm3) = a cube that measures 1cm x 1cm x 1cm

    • 1cc is exactly equal to in volume to 1 ml


    Mass contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

    • Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in an object

    • The basic unit of mass is the gram (g)


    Weight
    Weight contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

    • Weight is a measure of the attraction between two objects due to gravity

    • Your weighton another planet may differ due to the amount of gravity, however your mass will always be the same


    Density
    Density contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

    • The relationship between mass and volume is called density

    • Density is defined as the mass per unit volume of a substance.

    • Density = Mass

      Volume


    Density practice problem
    Density Practice Problem contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

    • A carton of milk weighs 1000 grams and takes up 100cm3 of space, what is it’s density? DON’T FORGET YOUR UNITS!!

    • Density = Mass = 1000g = 10 g/cm3 Volume 100cm3


    Temperature
    Temperature contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

    • In the metric system, temperature is measured on the Celsius scale.

    • On this temperature scale, water freezes at 0o C and boils at 100oC.

    • The metric system was set in such a way that there was exactly 100 degrees between freezing and boiling point of water.

    • Normal body temperature is 37oC. Room temperature is about 21oC.


    Metric prefixes used in conversion
    Metric Prefixes used in Conversion contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

    Kilo

    Hecta

    Deca

    Meter / Liter / Gram

    deci

    centi

    milli


    How can you remember this
    How can you remember this? contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

    King

    Henry

    Died

    Monday

    Chocolate

    Milk

    Drinking


    How do you convert from one unit to another
    How do you convert from one unit to another? contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

    • For every space that you move you move the decimal one place to the left or the right

    K – H – Da - - d – c - m

    M-L-G


    A sample problem
    A Sample Problem… contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

    3450.

    3.45 Kg = _____g

    1

    2

    3

    K – H – D - - d – c - m

    M-L-G


    Another sample problem
    Another Sample Problem contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

    .756

    756 ml = ______L

    2

    3

    1

    K – H – D - - d – c - m

    M-L-G


    Dimensional analysis
    Dimensional Analysis contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

    Dimensional Analysis is another way of converting units.

    It is often used to convert units from

    English to Metric or vise versa.

    Your friend in England runs 3 kilometers a day while you run 3000 yards a day.

    Using kilometers which of you runs a longer distance?


    Steps for dimensional analysis
    Steps for Dimensional Analysis contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

    • Step 1: Determine the given unit and the desired unit.

    Given: yards (3000)

    Desired: kilometers


    Step 2 find the relationship between the units and consider the possible conversion factors
    Step 2: contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur! Find the relationship between the units and consider the possible conversion factors

    Known:

    12 inches / 1 foot

    1 yard / 3 feet

    2.54 centimeters / 1 inch

    100 centimeters / 1 meter

    1000 meters / 1 kilometers


    Step 3: contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur! Choose the conversion factor whose denominator has the same units as your given value to start with.

    Start with 1 yard

    3 feet


    Step 4: contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur! Write the original value next to the conversion factor with a multiplication sign between them. Cancel like terms.

    3000 ydsx3 ftx12inx2.54cmx1m x1km

    1yd 1ft 1in 100cm 1000m

    =


    Step 5 multiply the resulting equation
    Step 5: contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur! Multiply the resulting equation.

    3000 ydsx3 ftx12inx2.54cmx1m x1km

    1yd 1ft 1in 100cm 1000m

    1) Multiply across the top:

    274,320

    100,000

    2) Multiply across the bottom:

    3) Divide top by bottom:

    2.7432 km


    Solution to equation
    Solution to equation contradicted can become a law or principle. All other competing hypotheses must be eliminated for this to occur!

    3000 yards = 2.7432 km which is less than 3km. Therefore your friend in England runs more than you do per day.


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