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The Civil War . Part II: The Course. Slavery……. One of the top reasons why our Southern states decided to secede from the Union Oak Alley Plantation. -Built in the 1830s Was home to over 100 slaves . Slave Cabin-tin sided building.

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the civil war

The Civil War

Part II: The Course

  • One of the top reasons why our Southern states decided to secede from the Union
oak alley plantation
Oak Alley Plantation

-Built in the 1830s

Was home to over

100 slaves

how the war began
How the War Began
  • Fort Sumter
    • Remained under federal control.
    • Lincoln had to decide whether or not to send it supplies. Sending supplies would risk war, but didn’t want to give in either
    • Confederacy decided to attack before any supplies could arrive
    • For 34 hours the Confederacy fired shells into the fort until it surrendered
fort sumter video
Fort Sumter Video
lincoln s first move
Lincoln’s First Move
  • Lincoln asked the Union states for 75,000 militia to put down the South’s uprising
  • Upper Southern states did not want to go against South Carolina and decided to join the Confederacy (Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Arkansas)
  • The secession of wealthy and populous Virginia, strengthened the Confederacy and led to Robert E Lee leaving the US and joining the Confederacy
choosing sides
Choosing Sides
  • Maryland stayed in the Union due to Pro-Union leaders
  • Kentucky stayed in the Union because of a Confederate invasion
  • Missouri and Delaware stayed in the Union
  • Western counties of Virginia broke away and formed West Virginia and this part returned to the Union
  • 24 states in the Union, 11 in the Confederacy
strengths of each side
Strengths of Each Side


More people

85% of factories located there

Double the railroad

Almost all naval power and shipyards belonged in the North

Abraham Lincoln’s leadership

Knowledgable and experienced war leaders

Fighting in the South (homeland and near supplies)

How does this compare to the colonists in the American Revolution


union strategy
Union Strategy
  • Anaconda Plan-smother the South’s economy
  • Naval blockade of the South’s coastline-no goods go in or out
  • Gain control of the Mississippi to split the Confederacy into two
  • Immediate attack on Richmond, Virginia-Lincoln ordered an invasion in summer 1861
confederate strategy
Confederate Strategy
  • Began with defensive approach-didn’t want to conquer North, just wanted to be left alone
  • Tried to withold cotton from the market to get foreign support but European nations didn’t want to get involved
  • Later took offensive and tried for big victories to weaken Northern spirit and attitude
lincoln s second step
Lincoln’s second step
  • Union invasion of Virginia
  • Needed to defeat Confederate troops at Manassas, Virginia near a creek called Bull Run
  • Confederates were victorious under leadership of General Thomas J “Stonewall” Jackson
  • North realized it had underestimated its opponent and Lincoln send the 90-day militia home and called in a real army of 5000,000 volunteers for 3 years
ugliness of war
Ugliness of War
battle of bull run
Battle of Bull Run
ulysses s grant contributes
Ulysses S Grant Contributes
  • Used ironclad gunboats, captured Ft Henry and Ft Donelson on Cumberland River-opened river access to heart of the South (northern Alabama)
  • Rallied troops after a surprise attack near Shiloh church in Tennessee-Union was victorious but with a high number of casualties
  • “I can’t spare this man-he fights”—said by Abe Lincoln about General Grant
robert e lee contributes
Robert E Lee Contributes
  • Leads Confederates to a 2nd victory at Bull Run which pushes the Union troops back to D.C.-this ends Union threat in Virginia
  • Decides to invade the North by crossing the Potomac into Maryland
  • Met Union army at Antietam Creed for the bloodiest battle in all of American History
  • Lost about 1/3 of his men and withdrew to Virginia
grant or lee who would you choose
Grant or Lee? Who would you choose?
  • One of the bloodies battles of the Civil War
abraham lincoln biography
Abraham Lincoln-biography
emancipation proclamation
Emancipation Proclamation
  • What is it???
lincoln and emancipation
Lincoln and Emancipation?
  • Abolitionists wanted Lincoln to free or emancipate slaves
  • Hesitated because of lack of support for emancipation from Northern Democrats, Republicans and the 4 slave states still in the Union
  • Didn’t want slavery to further divide the nation
  • By the summer of 1862, decided in favor of emancipation in order to weaken the South by taking away slaves fighting in their army
  • Waited until after the battle of Antietam
emancipation proclamation1
Emancipation Proclamation
  • Issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1st, 1863
  • Freed all slaves in the Confederacy-very few were actually free because Union soldiers were not close enough to enforce this
  • Only freed slaves in Confederacy because the Constitution allowed it as a military strategy
  • Symboloic measure making the goal of war Liberation
  • Encouraged African-American men to fight for the Union
emancipation proclamation2
Emancipation Proclamation
gettysburg the beginning of the end
Gettysburg…The Beginning of the End
  • After several Union losses and the death of Confederate General Stonewall Jackson, troops from both sides met at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
  • Union General Meade had 90,000 troops vs. 75,000 troops under Confederate General Lee
  • Battle went on for 3 days with each side trying to get control of the high ground
  • 2 “round top” hills, Cemetery Ridge and Culp’s Hill
gettysburg continued
  • Turning point was Pickett’s Charge-a direct attack to the middle of the Union line by Confederate troops-turned out to be a deadly mistake
  • Union Failed to counterattack and finish off Lee and his army once and for all
  • Still there was reason for the Union to celebrate, the losses for the Confederacy were greater-they lost about 1/3 of Lee’s army
pickett s charge
Pickett’s Charge
gettysburg address
Gettysburg Address
how did it all end
How Did it All End?
  • Grant had defeated Confederate troops at Vicksburg, Mississippi after a siege of the area
  • Union General Sherman took control over Atlanta and waged total war against troops and everything that supported the enemy-crops, RR lines, towns
  • Sherman took Savannah, Georgia
how did it all end1
How Did it All End?
  • Grant fought terrible battles on his way to Richmond. Lost many men but would not retreat
  • Finally laid seige to Richmond and eventually Lee pulled out and left Richmond undefended. Union troops took over Richmond, took down the Confederate flag and raised up a US flag
  • Lee and Grant meet at the small Virginia town of Appomattox Court House to arrange a Confederate surrendor
ending of the civil war video
Ending of the Civil War video
part iii
Part III
some effects of the war on the u s
Some effects of the war on the U.S.
  • 13th Amendment passed in 1865, which banned slavery in the United States
  • Lincoln was assassinated 5 days after the surrender at Appomattox by John Wilkes Booth
    • Lost a great leader with experience and political skills during a challenging time
    • Northern economy thrived with manufacturing, Southern economy was a disaster with plantations destroyed and livestock dead, labor system was also gone
reconstruction begins
Reconstruction Begins
  • Reconstruction: the federal government’s process to readmit the Confederate states to the Union
  • Lasted from 1865-1877
  • Lincoln promised to be understanding and may pardon Confederate officials and allow Confederate states to form governments and send representatives to Congress
  • Andrew Johnson took over after Lincoln was killed
legacy of the war
Legacy of the war
radical reconstruction
Radical Reconstruction
  • Divided the south into 5 military districts ran by an army commander
  • Members of the ruling class before the war lost their voting rights
  • Southern states had to approve new constitutions that gave the right to vote to all men including African Americans and they must ratify the 14th Amendment
southern state constitutions
Southern State Constitutions
  • Southern voters chose delegates to write new state constitutions
  • ¾ were Republicans
  • ¼ Scalawags-poor white farmers from the South
  • ¼ Carpetbaggers-white Northerners accused of rushing to South for political power or wealth
southern state constitutions1
Southern State Constitutions
  • ¼ African Americans half had been free before the war, 80% could read
  • New constitution set up public schools and gave the vote to all adult males led to voters in all Southern states to approve their new constitutions. The former Confederate states were allowed back in the Union
  • During this time African Americans served in state legislatures and held places in Congress
rights of freedman
Rights of Freedman

Able to leave plantations and travel freely

Could marry legally

Attended school

Provide for their families instead of their owner

Some were able to own land

grant s strengths
Grant’s strengths
  • Ku Klux Klan continued to terrorize African Americans
  • President Grant urged Congress to pass strict laws against the Klan
  • Anti-Klan bill lead to the arrest of thousands of Klansmen, attacks on Black voters declined
  • Grant won a 2nd term
failures for grant and republicans
Failures for Grant and Republicans
  • Scandal with government positions, bad choices of presidential advisers, and financial panic led to decrease in focus and care for Reconstruction
  • Democrats began to gain more control
  • Supreme court began to undo some of the laws put in place to encourage equality, weakened Reconstruction
end of reconstruction
End of Reconstruction
  • Compromise of 1877—ANOTHER COMPROMISE—Hayes became President and Southern Democrats won the following:
    • Federal troops removed from the south
    • Land would be provided for railroads to link the south with the west
    • Southern officials will get federal money for construction and improvement projects
end of reconstruction1
End of Reconstruction
  • Hayes must appoint a Democrat to his cabinet
  • Democrats promise to respect African Americans civil and political rights
  • Success of Reconstruction is still questionable: African Americans gained more rights but still endured much violence and prejudice