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  1. Some comments

  2. Papers • Following directions would be nice. I am going to fail anyone whose research paper does not adhere to the directions. • Formatting: Double spaced, times or other serif fonts. • No abstract. • Your name, paper title, date, class on title page. • Pages numbered. • Sections in paper with headings. • A clear thesis. • Uniform graphics. No pixelated graphics. • J. Am. Chem. Soc. bibliography (+ paper title) and citation format. Journals should be abbreviated. • Plagiarism

  3. Papers • You will lose points for the following • Poor spelling and grammar • Poor flow of story line • Logical inconsistencies • Gross negligence to site original prior art. • Incomplete literature surveys (hint: always make sure you don’t miss citations to your audience’s work).

  4. Comments on editing • If you didn’t get a lot of comments-either you failed to turn in a very long draft or you were cheated. • No one did a bang up job with their draft. • Now image what would happen if you turn in tripe like that trash you edited to any audience.

  5. Comments on Exam • Following directions would be nice. • These were practical problems. Theoretical answers are worse than useless. • Do not assume your audience knows that you know the answer. It’s a test. Everything in life is a test to weed out idiots and those whose genetics are not adding to the pool.

  6. Problem 1: What polymer would make a suitable adhesive for joining machined Teflon to machined Teflon? Explain your choice.

  7. Problem 1: What polymer would make a suitable adhesive for joining machined Teflon to machined Teflon? Explain your choice. Due to low surface tension of Teflon, you will need to find an adhesive with a lower surface free energy (probably fluorinated) or chemically modify the surface with a plasma, flame, or oxidizing agent (Piranha) to raise the surface energy.

  8. Problem 2: You have a customer you are building a "turn-key" house for who has a medically documented sensitivity to formaldehyde. You know that plywood uses formaldehyde thermoset glues so you cannot use those. What other materials commonly used in home construction use or emit measurable formaldehyde?

  9. Problem 2: You have a customer you are building a "turn-key" house for who has a medically documented sensitivity to formaldehyde. You know that plywood uses formaldehyde thermoset glues so you cannot use those. What other materials commonly used in home construction use or emit measurable formaldehyde? Pressed wood, composite beams, beaver board, masonite, white board, drywall or sheet rock, linoleum, carpet all can and generally will have glues that release formadehyde. Worse yet, wood, paper, and other wood products without glue also release formaldehyde as do some vegetables and fruit. The real question is what level of formaldehyde is released and what is the resting state concentration relative to harmful levels.

  10. Problem 3: With what will you replace those polymers identified to emit formaldehyde? If you give me a tradename you need to identify the polymer.

  11. Problem 3: With what will you replace those polymers identified to emit formaldehyde? If you give me a tradename you need to identify the polymer. Replacing the formaldehyde phenol polymers used in plywood and other wood composites was practically impossible until recently. You can find material that is properly formulated and autoclaved that will release very low amounts. Recently, Purebond adhesives have become available to replace phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. These are designed after mussel adhesives and are made from lignin or soybean derivatives.

  12. Problem 4: Your customer would like to apply an enamel coating, similar to that on your filing cabinet, onto a wood product without using water or solvent. How can this be done without slowing production? Be specific and to the point.

  13. Problem 4: Your customer would like to apply an enamel coating, similar to that on your filing cabinet, onto a wood product without using water or solvent. How can this be done without slowing production? Be specific and to the point.

  14. Problem 4: Your customer would like to apply an enamel coating, similar to that on your filing cabinet, onto a wood product without using water or solvent. How can this be done without slowing production? Be specific and to the point. Thermal spray coating. Plasma coating would also work but is probably more expensive.

  15. Problem 5: You are an engineer designing trucks and are in charge of the actuator for the electronic locks. The actuators have been failing after about 6 months to a year and you are tasked to solve the problem before the new year model rolls out. You open a number of failed actuators to find that in every case, the teeth on one or more of the plastic gears are failing. The teeth are not being broken off, but are being mashed and bent to the side. What must you do to fix the problem? That is "what steps" would you take to solve the problem-including getting information on the problem. And by the way the company will not let you replace the plastic with metal gears because the specifications call for plastic.

  16. Problem 5: You are an engineer designing trucks and are in charge of the actuator for the electronic locks. The actuators have been failing after about 6 months to a year and you are tasked to solve the problem before the new year model rolls out. You open a number of failed actuators to find that in every case, the teeth on one or more of the plastic gears are failing. The teeth are not being broken off, but are being mashed and bent to the side. What must you do to fix the problem? That is "what steps" would you take to solve the problem-including getting information on the problem. And by the way the company will not let you replace the plastic with metal gears because the specifications call for plastic. • Fatigue study on gear material to confirm failure by fatigue • Calculate force on gears. Confirm with experiment with gears. Add safety margin. Should have flat plateau on S/N curve. • Select polymer with desired S/N characteristics • Conduct fatigue testing.

  17. Problem 6: Some of our collection of Raphael Gyllenbjorn acrylic on canvas paintings have started to show cracking and some bleaching. What is the problem(s) and what do recommend we do to protect the collection while still allowing the public to view the art?

  18. Problem 6: Some of our collection of Raphael Gyllenbjorn acrylic on canvas paintings have started to show cracking and some bleaching. What is the problem(s) and what do recommend we do to protect the collection while still allowing the public to view the art? Damage could come from a combination of causes: UV, ozone, smoke, organic aerosols, aging, loss of solvent. 1) Determine what the pictures have been exposed to for their lifetime (Fluorescent lights, sunlight, smoke, ozone) 2) Measure UV and ozone at pictures locations 3) Find literature on degradation effects on acrylics and use Rama spectroscopy or other technique to verify nature of damage. 4) If friable, apply varnish to consolidate. 5) If not, eliminate UV sources. If oxidation damage is observed, suggest inert atmosphere, filtered light environment.

  19. Problem 7: List at least three reasons we use paint (besides esthetics)?

  20. Problem 7: List at least three reasons we use paint (besides esthetics)? Protection against: • Oxidation • Heat • EM • Ionizing radiation (lead paint) • Grafitti • Water • Microbes • Algae and barnacles • Mechanical damage • Theft or espionage

  21. Problem 8: Why should you remove old paint before repainting? There is clearly something to explain here.

  22. Problem 8: Why should you remove old paint before repainting? There is clearly something to explain here. Because new paint probably has same surface free energy as old paint. Loss flakes are poor substrates Uneven surface is unattractive. Reduce mass (fuel consumption)

  23. Problem 9: Give me an example of an "organic" or "green" glue and explain its differences from and advantages and disadvantages over "chemical" glue.

  24. Problem 9: Give me an example of an "organic" or "green" glue and explain its differences from and advantages and disadvantages over "chemical" glue. Organic or green are the common terms for things made from natural materials rather than from “chemicals”. Problem: Natural materials are chemicals and the most toxic substances known are natural products (e.g. Palytoxin) Natural materials are often water soluble or swellable, readily digested by microbes or fungi, and have low use temperature ceilings. Advantage: renewable Disadvantage: volume required for civilization may cause greater environmental damage than petroleum based analogs.

  25. Problem 10: What are the similarities and differences between paint and varnish?

  26. Problem 10: What are the similarities and differences between paint and varnish? Paint has pigment Varnish does not.

  27. Extra credit: What are plastic gasoline containers made of and why don't they dissolve in the gasoline?

  28. Extra credit: What are plastic gasoline containers made of and why don't they dissolve in the gasoline? HDPE is not soluble in gas at room temperature. Permeation of gasoline through HDPE can be minimized more by surface modified the interior of the container with plasma or chemical oxidation to make it more polar and less soluble to gasoline.