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ONENCAN RASHID TRAINER-DRIVERS. Objective:. By the end of this session you will be able to list down the procedures of towing/pushing back an aircraft. . Overview:. In this lesson we’ll look at: The general safety requirements Pushback Tow back Power back operations. Definitions:.

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onencan rashid trainer drivers
ONENCAN RASHID

TRAINER-DRIVERS

objective
Objective:
  • By the end of this session you will be able to list down the procedures of towing/pushing back an aircraft.

Enhas training 2010

overview
Overview:
  • In this lesson we’ll look at:
    • The general safety requirements
    • Pushback
    • Tow back
    • Power back operations

Enhas training 2010

definitions
Definitions:
  • PUSHBACK: Moving an aircraft from parking position to taxi position by the use of specialized ground support equipment
  • POWERBACK: Moving of aircraft from parking position to taxi position by use of the aircraft engines
  • TOWING: Moving of aircraft other than pushback operations, with/without load on board by use of specialized ground support equipment.

Enhas training 2010

general safety requirements
General safety Requirements

Only those personnel trained and qualified should perform aircraft movement operations functions.

Personnel should be instructed on the hazards associated with aircraft movement operations, e.g engine, nose wheel movement, aircraft track, visibility.

Enhas training 2010

warning
WARNING
  • Ground personnel are prohibited from entering the push back hazard zone while the aircraft is moving. Maintain a minimum of 3M(10FT) away from landing gear, tower, and tow tractor. Entering the pushback hazard zone while the aircraft is moving can cause injury or death to personnel

Enhas training 2010

slide10
Prior to aircraft movement an inspection should be made of the surface conditions to determine if it is safe to conduct the operation. e.g snow

Prior to aircraft movement a visual inspection should be made of the aircraft to ensure all service doors/ panels are closed and locked.

Enhas training 2010

slide11
Note: All cargo doors and main gear doors must be closed before moving the DC-10-30F.

Prior to aircraft movement personnel should ensure that all ground support equipment is removed from the aircraft and there are adequate clearances between the aircraft and facilities/ equipment.

Enhas training 2010

slide12
Prior to aircraft movement a verification should be made that power cables, loading bridges etc. are detached from the aircraft.

Prior to aircraft movement a visual inspection should be made to ensure chocks are removed from all wheels.

Personnel performing the functions should be positioned away from the hazard zones

Enhas training 2010

slide15
Only those persons required to perform operating functions should be in the operating area.
  • During aircraft movement the maximum nose gear turn limits shall not be exceeded.
  • Communication with the flight deck should be achieved in a manner that eliminates the need for the personnel to walk in close proximity to the nose gear or tow tractor during the operation, e.g. use of flexible cord to the tractor driver, cordless system.

Enhas training 2010

slide16
Note: Gemini strongly recommend a direct, face-to-face conversation between the pilot in command, the tow tractor operator and the guide man before attempting to move an aircraft without using the aircraft flight interphone or radio communications.

Standard operating procedures have been developed in accordance with the aircraft manufacturer’s recommendations for the DC-10-30F.

Enhas training 2010

slide17
Personnel performing marshalling or wing walking functions should utilize, during day time operations either wands or mitts of a high visibility color and during low visibility/ nighttime operations lighted wands.

Operations conducted in poor surface/ weather conditions should be performed t low speed.

Enhas training 2010

push back operations
Push Back Operations

The DC-10-30F can be towed or pushed, forward of aft, on hard surfaces by using tow bar attached to either the forward or aft lug of the nose gear, or pulled forward or aft by cables attached to either the forward or aft tow lugs of the main gear.

Towing or pushing the aircraft forward or backward is normally accomplished through the nose gear. Towing by the main gear is performed when the aircraft is in sand, soft earth or mud, or whenever it is determined that movement by the nose gear would exceed the nose gear towing load limits.

Enhas training 2010

slide19
The tractor should be in the appropriate drive mode prior to the commencement of the operation e.g. proper control station active and steering set for two wheel, four wheel or crab steering as required.

Chocks should not be removed from the main gear until the tractor and towbar should be detached from the tractor.

Enhas training 2010

slide20
When connecting the tow bar to the tractor, personnel should be facing the tractor.

The tractor and tow bar to the tractor should be in-line with the center line of the aircraft before push back commences.

The tractor should not be left unattended with the engine running.

Enhas training 2010

slide22
The wheels of the tow bar should be fully retracted/ off the ground before push back commences. The steering by-pass pin must be correctly installed prior to connecting the tow bar to the aircraft and before push back commences and is removed after push back is complete with all equipment and personnel clear of he nose gear tyres.

Enhas training 2010

slide24
During nose gear towing, the nose wheel steering by-pass valve frees the nose wheel from the control cylinders and allows tow bar steering up to 68 degrees With the torque links disconnected, a greater angle or sharper turn may be accomplished: however, turns with the nose wheel turned more than 68 degrees should be avoided since small area or sharp turns result in excessive scrubbing of the main gear tyres.

Enhas training 2010

slide25
Personnel should not step across the tow bar whilst the push back operation is progress.

When stopping the push back the throttle on the tractor will be closed and brakes applied gently.

The last 3 meters (10feet) of any towing activity should be in straight line to align gears and relieve tyre twisting stresses.

Enhas training 2010

caution
Caution

Failure to align gears and relieve tyre and strut stresses caused by turning motions might result in hydraulic leakage through shock strut seals.

A qualified person should be stationed in the flight compartment during all phases of push back and towing watch for hazardous condition and to stop the aircraft if necessary.

Enhas training 2010

slide28
Check that the nose gear static strut extension does not exceed dimension ‘X’ strut can be defied to dimension ‘X’ if required.

Caution;

Towing aircraft whose gear strut extension exceeds dimension ‘x’ might damage the centering mechanism.

Enhas training 2010

slide29
The tractor and tow bar/ shear-pin combination should be suitable for the operation, considering; the aircraft weight, the weather conditions, the apron surface condition.

Procedure

  • Close and lock cargo loading doors
  • Close main gear doors and verify landing gear down lock pins are installed if required.
  • Place the nose wheel steering by-pass valve handle in the by-pass position and install lock pin.

Enhas training 2010

slide30
Place the tow bar at the nose wheel and secure.
  • Establish communication between the towing tractor and the flight compartment. The flight interphone connection jack is located on the ground power receptacle panel aft of the nose gear wheel well.
  • In congested areas, station wing walkers to check clearance between the aircraft and adjacent buildings and equipment.

Enhas training 2010

slide32
Remove the wheel chocks and disconnect static ground cables.
  • If tyres are frozen to the ground, thaw with warm water or hot air to break ice bond. Use of aircraft de-ice fluid, while an alternative, may leave a slippery residue on the ramp that may subsequently interfere with maneuvering of the towing tractor.

Enhas training 2010

slide33
Speed should be kept to a minimum when the apron is icy, slushy, or snow covered.
  • Push the aircraft forward or aft, applying smooth even loads from the tow tractor. Observe restricting turn angles.

Enhas training 2010

caution34
Caution
  • When pushing aircraft with the tow bar attached to the forward towing lug on the nose gear, and torque links connected, observe the red turn limit on the aft side of the nose gear piston and nose gear doors.
  • The last 3 metres ( 10feet) of any push back action should be in a straight line forward or aft to align gears and relieve tyre twisting stresses.

Enhas training 2010

slide35
When push back is complete place a wheel chock forward of the nose gear tyres approximately 10-20 cm ( 4-8in).
  • Confirm that the parking brake is set.
  • Disconnect the tow bar from the tow tractor.
  • Disconnect and remove the tow bar from the aircraft.

Enhas training 2010

slide36
Note:

The tow bar must be removed from the aircraft before the by-pass valve is returned to normal, otherwise hydraulic pressure will cause the nose wheel tow lug to bind in the tow bar and the tow gear can not be removed.

Enhas training 2010

slide37
If the nose gear torque links were disconnected, can not torque links.
  • If landing gear down lock pins were installed, remove down lock pins.
  • Remove the lock pin from down lock pins.
  • Remove the lock pin from the nose wheel steering by-pass valve and return the valve to the normal position.

Enhas training 2010

slide38
Warning:

-When the nose wheel steering by-pass valve lock pin is removed the valve closes and causes hydraulic pressure to center the nose wheel. Before removing the lock pin, make certain that all personnel and equipment are clear of the nose wheel.

Enhas training 2010

slide39
Disconnect the flight interphone and secure the ground power unit connector panel door.
  • Proceed to the left or right side of the aircraft in view of the flight crew and display all lock pin prior to signaling that the aircraft is clear to taxi.

Enhas training 2010