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Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations Third Edition. Chapter 8 Macintosh and Linux Boot Processes and File Systems. Objectives. Explain Macintosh file structures and the boot process Explain UNIX and Linux disk structures and boot processes Describe other disk structures.

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guide to computer forensics and investigations third edition

Guide to Computer Forensics and InvestigationsThird Edition

Chapter 8

Macintosh and Linux Boot Processes and File Systems

objectives
Objectives
  • Explain Macintosh file structures and the boot process
  • Explain UNIX and Linux disk structures and boot processes
  • Describe other disk structures

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

understanding the macintosh file structure and boot process
Understanding the Macintosh File Structure and Boot Process
  • Mac OS X version 10.4
    • Darwin core
    • BSD UNIX application layer
  • Hierarchical File System (HFS)
    • Files stored in nested directories (folders)
  • Extended Format File System (HFS+)
    • Introduced with Mac OS 8.1
    • Supports smaller file sizes on larger volumes, resulting in more efficient disk use

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

understanding the macintosh file structure and boot process continued
Understanding the Macintosh File Structure and Boot Process (continued)
  • File Manager utility
    • Reading, writing, and storing data to physical media
  • Finder
    • Keeps track of files and maintain users’ desktops
  • In older Mac OSs, a file consists of two parts:
    • Data fork and resource fork
    • Stores file metadata and application information

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

understanding macintosh os 9 volumes
Understanding Macintosh OS 9 Volumes
  • A volume is any storage medium used to store files
    • Can be all or part of a hard disk
    • On a floppy disk is always the entire disk
  • Allocation and logical blocks
    • Logical blocks cannot exceed 512 bytes
    • Allocation blocks are a set of consecutive logical blocks

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

understanding macintosh os 9 volumes continued
Understanding Macintosh OS 9 Volumes (continued)

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

understanding macintosh os 9 volumes continued1
Understanding Macintosh OS 9 Volumes (continued)
  • Two EOF descriptors
    • Logical EOF
      • Actual size of the file
    • Physical EOF
      • The number of allocation blocks for that file
  • Clumps
    • Groups of contiguous allocation blocks
    • Reduce fragmentation

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

understanding macintosh os 9 volumes continued2
Understanding Macintosh OS 9 Volumes (continued)

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

exploring macintosh boot tasks
Exploring Macintosh Boot Tasks
  • The boot process for OS 9 is as follows:
    • 1. Power on the computer
    • 2. Hardware self-test and Open Firmware run
    • 3. Macintosh OS starts
    • 4. The startup disk is located
    • 5. System files are opened
    • 6. System extensions are loaded
    • 7. OS 9 Finder starts

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

exploring macintosh boot tasks continued
Exploring Macintosh Boot Tasks (continued)
  • Older Macintosh OSs use
    • First two logical blocks as boot blocks
    • Master Directory Block (MDB) or Volume Information Block (VIB)
      • Stores all information about a volume
    • Volume Control Block (VCB)
      • Stores information from the MDB when OS mounts
  • Extents overflow file
    • Stores any file information not in the MDB or a VCB

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

exploring macintosh boot tasks continued1
Exploring Macintosh Boot Tasks (continued)
  • Catalog
    • Listing of all files and directories on the volume
    • Maintains relationships between files and directories
  • Volume Bitmap
    • Tracks used and unused blocks on a volume
  • Mac OS 9 uses the B*-tree file system for File Manager
    • Actual file data is stored on the leaf nodes
    • B*-tree also uses header, index, and map nodes

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

using macintosh forensic software
Using Macintosh Forensic Software
  • Tools and vendors
    • BlackBag Technologies
    • SubRosaSoft MacForensicsLab
    • Guidance EnCase
    • X-Ways Forensics
    • ProDiscover Forensic Edition
    • Sleuth Kit and Autopsy

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

examining unix and linux disk structures and boot processes
Examining UNIX and Linux Disk Structures and Boot Processes
  • UNIX flavors
    • System V variants, Sun Solaris, IBM AIX, and HP-UX
    • BSD, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, and NetBSD
  • Linux distributions
    • Red Hat, Fedora, Ubuntu, and Debian
    • Most consistent UNIX-like OSs
  • Linux kernel is regulated under the GNU General Public License (GPL) agreement

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

examining unix and linux disk structures and boot processes continued
Examining UNIX and Linux Disk Structures and Boot Processes (continued)
  • BSD license is similar to the GPL
    • But makes no requirements for derivative works
  • Some useful Linux commands to find information about your Linux system
    • uname –a
    • ls –l
    • ls –ul filename
    • netstat -s

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

examining unix and linux disk structures and boot processes continued1
Examining UNIX and Linux Disk Structures and Boot Processes (continued)
  • Linux file systems
    • Second Extended File System (Ext2fs)
    • Ext3fs, journaling version of Ext2fs
  • Employs inodes
    • Contain information about each file or directory
    • Pointer to other inodes or blocks
    • Keep internal link count
      • Deleted inodes have count value 0

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

unix and linux overview
UNIX and Linux Overview
  • Everything is a file
    • Files are objects with properties and methods
  • UNIX consists of four components
  • Boot block
    • Block is a disk allocation unit of at least 512 bytes
    • Contains the bootstrap code
    • UNIX/Linux computer has only one boot block, located on the main hard disk

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

unix and linux overview continued
UNIX and Linux Overview (continued)
  • Superblock
    • Indicates disk geometry, available space, and location of the first inode
    • Manages the file system
  • Inode blocks
    • First data after the superblock
    • Assigned to every file allocation unit
  • Data blocks
    • Where directories and files are stored
    • This location is linked directly to inodes

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

unix and linux overview continued1
UNIX and Linux Overview (continued)

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

unix and linux overview continued2
UNIX and Linux Overview (continued)
  • Bad block inode
    • Keeps track of disk’s bad sectors
    • Commands: badblocks, mke2fs, and e2fsck/
  • Linux ls command displays information about files and directories
  • Continuation inode
    • Provides information about a file or directory
      • Mode and file type, the quantity of links in the file or directory, the file or directory status flag

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

unix and linux overview continued3
UNIX and Linux Overview (continued)

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

unix and linux overview continued4
UNIX and Linux Overview (continued)

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

understanding inodes
Understanding Inodes
  • Link data stored in data blocks
  • Ext2fs and Ext3fs are improvements over Ext
    • Data recovery easier on Ext3fs than on Ext2fs
  • First inode has 13 pointers
    • Pointers 1 to 10 are direct pointers to data storage blocks
    • Pointer 11 is an indirect pointer
    • Pointer 12 is a double-indirect pointer
    • Pointer 13 is a triple-indirect pointer

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

understanding inodes continued
Understanding Inodes (continued)

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

understanding unix and linux boot processes
Understanding UNIX and Linux Boot Processes
  • Instruction code in firmware is loaded into RAM
  • Instruction code then:
    • Checks the hardware
    • Load the boot program
  • Boot program
    • Loads kernel
    • Transfers control to kernel
  • Kernel’s first task is to identify all devices

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

understanding unix and linux boot processes continued
Understanding UNIX and Linux Boot Processes (continued)
  • Kernel
    • Boots system on single-user mode
    • Runs startup scripts
    • Changes to multiuser mode
    • Identifies root directory, swap, and dump files
    • Sets hostname and time zone
    • Runs consistency checks on the file system and mounts partitions
    • Starts services and sets up the NIC
    • Establishes user and system accounting and quotas

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

understanding linux loader and grub
Understanding Linux Loader and GRUB
  • Linux Loader (LILO)
    • Old boot manager
    • Can start two or more OSs
    • Uses configuration file Lilo.conf
  • Grand Unified Boot Loader (GRUB)
    • More powerful than LILO
    • As LILO, it resides on MBR
    • Command line or menu driven

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

understanding unix and linux drives and partition schemes
Understanding UNIX and Linux Drives and Partition Schemes
  • Labeled as path starting at root (/) directory
    • Primary master disk (/dev/had)
      • First partition is /dev/hda1
      • Second partition is /dev/hda2
    • Primary slave or secondary master or slave (/dev/hdb)
      • First partition is /dev/hdb2
    • SCSI controllers
      • /dev/sda with first partition /dev/sda1
      • Linux treats SATA, USB, and FireWire devices the same way as SCSI devices

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

examining unix and linux disk structures
Examining UNIX and Linux Disk Structures
  • Most commercial computer forensics tools can analyze UNIX UFS and UFS2
    • And Linux Ext2, Ext3, ReiserFS, and Reiser4 file systems
  • Freeware tools include Sleuth Kit and its Web browser interface, Autopsy Browser
  • Foremost
    • A freeware carving tool that can read many image file formats
    • Configuration file: foremost.conf

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

examining ide eide and sata devices
Examining IDE/EIDE and SATA Devices
  • Examining the IDE host protected area
    • ATAPI-5 AT introduced in 1998 reserved and protected areas on IDE devices
      • Protected Area Run Time Interface Extension Service (PARTIES)
    • Data stored by diagnostic and restore programs
    • Tools
      • X-Ways Replica
    • HPA is also referred to as a BIOS Engineering Extension Record (BEER) data structure

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

examining ide eide and sata devices continued
Examining IDE/EIDE and SATA Devices (continued)
  • Exploring hidden partitions
    • Suspects try to conceal evidence by hiding disk partitions
    • Norton Disk Edit can change the disk partition table
      • Leaving no indication that the deactivated partition exists
    • Use imaging tools that can access unpartitioned areas of a drive

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations

summary
Summary
  • Macintosh uses HFS
    • Hierarchical structure
  • Mac OS file structure
    • Data fork and resource fork
  • Volume refers to any storage media
    • Allocation and logical blocks
  • Ext2fs uses inodes
    • Ext3fs: journaling version of Ext2fs
  • Linux file structure
    • Metadata and data

Guide to Computer Forensics and Investigations