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  1. A Natural Way to Rheology Nick Madison CP Kelco Technical Services Manager Consumer & Industrial Applications www.cpkelco.com

  2. Outline • Company Background • Products for Personal Care • Unique Delivery Methods • Fluid Gels • Films • Formulating with CP Kelco Products • Questions

  3. Company Facts • Owned by JM Huber Corporation • 2,500 employees • 10 manufacturing sites • 5 centers of technical excellence • Major markets: Food; Oilfield; Home, Personal & Oral Care • Specialists in Rheology Modifiers • No. 1 in CMC, xanthan gum, gellan gum and pectin • No. 2 in carrageenan

  4. A Few Words About Natural or Green Products • CP Kelco products have a high degree of consumer acceptance. They are considered “friendly.” • The polymers are sourced and made from natural ingredients. • All of our products are based on carbohydrate polymers from renewable resources. • Pectin has shown promise in reducing cholesterol and fighting cancer. • Carrageenan farming provides jobs and an economical boost for the areas in which it is grown.

  5. Products for Personal Care • Cellulose Gum • Viscosity • Heavy Skin Feel • Film Formation • Carrageenan • Rheology control • Re-healable Gel • Pectin • pH Control • Film Formation • Xanthan Gum • Emulsion Stability • Foam Stability • Suspension • Viscosity • Gellan Gum • Fluid Gel for Suspension and Emulsion Stability • Light Skin Feel • Foamed Systems

  6. Rheological Control Property Structure Relevance Viscosity Hydrodynamic radius; Perception of Polymer network thickness, richness (Shear rate of application) Pseudoplasticity Molecular reorientation: Good cling, intermolecular but easily interaction pumpable and pourable High G’ Energy storage in Good (elastic or storage network at rest suspension modulus) Extensional viscosity Weak intermolecular Perception of interaction tackiness

  7. Xanthan Gum Raw Material Glucose syrup Production Process Fermentation – followed by alcohol precipitation Chemical Structure Cellulose backbone + 3 sugar side chain Chemical Types Standard form Low acetate form Functional Properties Thickening Stabilizing

  8. Pseudoplasticity of 0.5% Gum Solutions 105 Xanthan Gum 104 Guar Gum 103 Viscosity (cP) CMC High-Viscosity Type 102 Sodium Alginate Pouring Brushing & Spraying 101 Swallowing Paper Coating Emulsion Stability Mixing Suspension 10 10-1 100 101 102 103 Shear Rate (1/sec)

  9. Sedimentation Control Body Wash with Beads Mascara Liquid Abrasives Mineral Suspensions Liquid Animal Feed Drilling Fluids Emulsion Stability Lotions and Creams Sunscreens Latex emulsions Asphalt emulsions Polishes Flow Control-Cling Sprayable Sunscreen Tile Cleaners Toilet Bowl Cleaners Tire Rim Cleaners Oven Cleaners Textured Paints Ceramic Glaze Latex emulsions Flow Control-Viscosity Foaming Hand Soaps Cough Syrups Drain Cleaners Friction Reducer Xanthan Gum Functional Examples

  10. 103 102 101 100 103 102 101 100 10-1 Shear / Extension Keltrol CG Keltrol CG-SFT Extensional Viscosity (Pa·s) Shear Viscosity (Pa·s) 101 102 103 Rate (s-1) Smooth-Flow Xanthan Gum Concentrations were chosen to give similar shear viscosities Smooth-flow xanthan solutions have lower extensional viscosity, and are less stringy – beneficial in many applications

  11. Non-Stringy Xanthan Gum Smooth-Flow Normal

  12. Xanthan -- Compatibility and Incompatibility • Xanthan gum is usually quite compatible with: • Anionic surfactants (~ 15-20%) • Nonionic surfactants (~ 40%) • Amphoteric surfactants (not in their cationic form) • Xanthan is usually not compatible with: • Cationic Surfactants • Quaternary Amines • Active Bleach (hypochlorite, peroxide, perborate, persulfate, etc.) • See compatibility table in xanthan book

  13. Making the Incompatible Compatible • Two Part Bleach Systems • Hydrogen Peroxide • Have a stabilized formulation • Cationic Surfactants and Quaternary Amines • Xanthan has compatibility in acidic systems (e.g. - 15% phosphoric acid cleaners) • Xanthan has compatibility in salt systems with sufficient ionic strength (dilution issues) • Rinse Free systems

  14. CMC

  15. The Influence of Molecular Weight Pseudoplasticity Water binding Mw / Viscosity Stability

  16. The Influence of Degree of Substitution Stability Clarity Compatibility DS Interaction Thixotropy

  17. Pectin

  18. Pectin – Protecting the Acid Mantle • Sebum and sweat mix to form a protective layer • If acid mantle is disrupted or loses its acidity, the skin becomes more prone to damage and infection • The loss of acid mantle is one of the side effects of washing the skin with soaps or detergents of high pH • Pectin is a poly acid which can buffer the pH on the skin to preserve the acid mantle • Since it is polymerized pectin is not adsorbed into the skin • Forms a film on the surface that acts as a barrier • Pectin is very label friendly

  19. Gellan Gum

  20. Emulsion Stability Results

  21. 1000 100 10 1 Viscosity (mPa.s) 0.05% Low Acyl Gellan in 5 mM Ca2+ + 10% sodium lauryl ether sulfate 20°C 40°C 60°C 0.1 1 10 100 1000 Shear Rate (s-1) Effect of Temperature on Fluid Gel

  22. Films -- Uses • Water swelling and soluble films from 0.03 to 1 mm in thickness • Carry active materials such as colors, flavors and even pharmaceutical agents • Surfactant Film • Blemish Treatment • Controlled release • Hair Dye • Supplying an unstable active • CP Kelco products can make films which dissolve very rapidly or do not dissolve at all

  23. Lotion • Viscosity needs: • Stabilization of colloidal particles • Skin feel • Rubbing is an inherently high shear process (high velocity, narrow gap) • Low viscosity can seem thin • High viscosity can promote drag or stickiness • Best choices: • Xanthan for stabilization • Cellulose gum to promote a heavier skin feel • Carrageenan (iota type) to also promote skin feel and have seaweed label claim • Pectin to provide skin feel and help promote healthy skin • Gellan gum for light skin feel

  24. Sunscreen • Viscosity needs: • Stabilization of colloidal particles • Skin feel • Water resistance • Best choices: • Xanthan for stabilization • Will also provide good film formation to resist water • Film is slow to hydrate • Cellulose gum to promote a heavier skin feel • Will also provide good film formation to resist water • Film is quick to hydrate • Carrageenan (iota type) to also promote skin feel and have seaweed label claim • Gellan gum for a sprayable sunscreen • Film is slow to hydrate

  25. Body Wash • Viscosity needs • Give a feeling of thickness when dispensed • Pour without gel-like appearance • Provide foam stability • Suspend actives or aesthetic ingredients • Best choices • Xanthan gum with a low degree of short term interactions like smooth-flow xanthan • Cellulose gum for more viscosity at higher shear rates • Improves thickness during pouring • Keeps product from seeming too gelled • Pectin for similar properties to CMC but with added label benefit of pectin • Gellan gum to add suspension or stabilization to a surfactant-thickened system

  26. Mascara • Viscosity needs • High viscosity during application for good control • Good film formation properties • Best choices • Cellulose gum for non-interacting viscosity • Higher polymer loading for good film formation (high solids) • Good solubility of the polymer for ease of removal • Pectin for same properties with added label friendliness

  27. Rheology Control Low Acyl Gellan SOLID GEL - Brittle LM Pectin k-Carrageenan HM Pectin SOLID GEL - Elastic High Acyl Gellan i-Carrageenan LIQUID GEL High Acyl Gellan Low Acyl Gellan Xanthan PSEUDOPLASTIC CarboxymethylCellulose HM Pectin NEWTONIAN 0 7 14 pH

  28. Thank You for your Attention • Here to Help: • Sales Team • R&D Centers • Technical Service • Customer Service • Large Literature Catalog www.cpkelco.com