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羧酸衍生物. Derivatives of Carboxylic Acid. 第一节  羧酸衍生物的命名. acyl group. 酯键. 第二节 羧酸衍生物的性质. ν C=O 1850~1680 ; ν C-O 1300~1000 ; ν N-H 3600~3100. 化学性质. 1 、 水解反应. △. H + or OH - / △. 羧酸. H + or OH - / △. 化学性质. 2 、 醇解反应. 酯. H + or OH -. 化学性质. 3 、 氨解反应. 酰胺. △. 酰基亲核取代反应. 离去基团. 亲核试剂.

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slide1

羧酸衍生物

Derivatives of Carboxylic Acid

slide6
第二节 羧酸衍生物的性质

νC=O1850~1680;νC-O 1300~1000;νN-H3600~3100

slide7
化学性质

1、水解反应

H+orOH- / △

羧酸

H+orOH- / △

slide8
化学性质

2、醇解反应

H+orOH-

slide9
化学性质

3、氨解反应

酰胺

slide10

酰基亲核取代反应

离去基团

亲核试剂

HOH

HOR

HNH2

羧酸衍生物的活性:

酰卤﹥酸酐﹥酯﹥酰胺

酰化剂

problem
Problem

What products would you obtain from acidic and basic hydrolysis of each of the following amides?

(a)N,N-Diethylbenzamide (b)

(c)

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第三节 碳酸衍生物

(一)脲(尿素)Urea

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1. 弱碱性

2. 水解

slide15

3. 与亚硝酸反应

4. 缩二脲的生成和缩二脲反应

缩二脲

OH-

CuSO4

缩二脲反应

缩二脲

紫红色

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第三节 碳酸衍生物

(二) 胍(亚氨基脲)

slide17
第三节 碳酸衍生物

(三)丙二酰脲

巴比妥酸

pKa=3.85

slide18
习题

P230 2(2)(4)(6) , 3(1)~(6) , 4(1) , 6

《Essentials of Organic Chemistry》P20 7.2.2 / Hydrolysis