Mexican Constitution of 1824 • The document under which Texas Colonists were invited to emigrate to Mexico, and was the one they swore to defend. • In 1835, President Antonio López de Santa Anna said Mexico was not ready for democracy and took away the 1824 Constitution. He made himself a dictator.
Battle of Gonzales First Shots of the Revolution • A Mexican officer ordered the citizens(Americans) of Gonzales to hand over a brass cannon, but they refused. • The settlers buried the cannon and called for reinforcements that reached 140 men. • The settlers dug up their cannon, mounted it on a wagon, and placed a flag on it that read: • On October 2, 1835 the citizens of Gonzales attacked a force of 100 Mexican soldiers and forced them to leave for San Antonio.
General Martín de Cos • Ordered 300 more troops to Texas • to put down the rebellion • Triggered the formation of a • volunteer army of Texans under the • command of George Collinsworth • and Ben Milam that captured the • town of Goliad • The capture of Goliad cut off the • supply lines of General Cos’ army • The Texan victories at Gonzales • and Goliad inspired more volunteers • to join the rebel army
Gonzales volunteers elected Stephen F. Austin as their general and began to organize their attack on San Antonio • To find a good defensive position outside San Antonio, Austin sent a search party of 90 men led by Jim Bowie and James Fannin Stephen F. Austin JimBowie James Fannin The March on San Antonio • Texans were attacked by 400 Mexican soldiers at Mission Concepción but defeated them because of their skill with rifles. • This clear victory boosted the morale of the Texas rebel army.
Juan Seguín • More than 100 Tejanos joined the fight in San Antonio, most notably Juan Seguín and Placido Benavides. • Many of these Tejanos were skilled horsemen and became a part of Stephen F. Austin’s plan to build a strong cavalry Placido Benavides Los Tejanos • Tejanos (Mexican Citizens) of San Antonio suffered under the occupation of General Cos • Prominent citizens were forced to sweep the city streets, Tejanos had to bake tortillas for the troops, and the Mexican forces also took supplies from citizens and destroyed some of their homes
Edward Burleson • Stephen F. Austin learned of his appointment as commissioner to the United States, and Colonel Edward Burleson was chosen by the soldiers to take command in Austin’s place. The Grass Fight • After the fight at Concepción, Stephen F. Austin moved his troops just north of San Antonio, where the Texans were able to fight General Cos’ army • Since the Mexican troops had taken the supplies of the local Tejanos, the siege first appeared to have little effect. deaf smith deaf smith • As Edward Burleson began to consider giving up the siege, one of his scouts, “Deaf” Smith reported that 100 Mexican soldiers with a pack of animals were headed for San Antonio. Erastus “Deaf” Smith
About 40 Texas cavalry troops and 100 infantry soldiers ambushed the Mexican soldiers and captured their horses, mules, supplies, and cargo. • A rumor quickly spread among the Texans that the Mexican soldiers were carrying silver to pay General Cos’ soldiers. • The Texan troops eagerly opened the bags that they thought contained silver, but found grass meant to feed horses • The Texans were disappointed, but it was the first sign that their siege was working.
Santa Anna had different plans for Texas, however. Capture of San Antonio • After the Grass Fight, the Texans were preparing to withdraw to Goliad when they got word that General Cos’ army was weak and disorganized. • The Texans attacked San Antonio and battled the Mexican forces for five days. Although Ben Milam was killed in the fighting, the Texans still defeated General Cos, and allowed him to lead his troops back to Mexico. • With nearly every Mexican soldier forced out of Texas, many Texans thought the fighting was over, and hoped they could now form a state government under the rules of the Constitution of 1824
The delegates elected Branch T. Archer president of the convention, and began to attend to the following business: Branch T. Archer The Consultation November 4, 1835 A group of delegates met in San Felipe to decide the future of Texas • Debate Independence • Create provisional government • Choose commissioners to send to United States • Address military matters
Debating Independence • Pro-War Group: • Argued that Texas should declare • independence • Pro-Peace Group • Wanted the Constitution of 1824 restored • Feared that declaring independence would cost them the support of the Tejanos • Felt they were loyal Mexican citizens • The Compromise • Delegates pledged loyalty to Mexico • Explained that they only used force to defend themselves • Warned that if the Constitution of 1824 was not restored, Texas would declare independence
Elected Henry Smith governor Elected James Robinson lieutenant governor Provisional Government Created the General Council to help Smith and Robinson run the government
Sam Houston was named commander-in-chief of the Texas Army The General Counsel created the Texas Navy to protect the coast and to attack Mexican ships. Texas Military
Houston sent Jim Bowie to San Antonio to evaluate the situation there. Sam Houston was alarmed by how unprepared the Texans were, and ordered the Alamo destroyed and its artillery removed.
Because of Bowie’s recommendation, Governor Smith ordered Lieutenant Colonel William B. Travis to raise a force and head to San Antonio. In January 1836, Jim Bowie arrived at the Alamo with 25 men, and decided the Alamo should not be destroyed. Col. Travis
Volunteers Arrive: -Davy Crockett arrived with a dozen volunteers from Tennessee. -James Bonham soon followed with a volunteer force from Alabama.
William B. Travis was put in command of the Alamo in February 1836 Jim Bowie argued with Travis over control of the troops, but finally agreed to share command with him
The Alamo was built as a mission, not a fort. So the Texans added: higher and thicker walls, cannons, And high fences made of stakes The Alamo needed about 1,000 soldiers to properly defend it, but would never have more than 200
Santa Anna ordered the surrender of the Alamo, but the Texans replied with a canon shot fired back at him. In response, Santa Anna raised a red flag that told the Texans that he would take no prisoners and leave no survivors.
That day William Travis wrote a famous letter “To the People of Texas and All Americans” to plea for help. On February 24, 1836 Santa Anna ordered his forces to begin firing on the Alamo. Jim Bowie had been ill, and collapsed on the second day of Santa Anna’s siege. Travis then took over full command of the Alamo.
Travis made many more pleas for aid to the provisional government and to Colonel James Fannin at Goliad, but they sent no help. Alamo Flag The only help that arrived was when 32 volunteers arrived from Gonzales under cover of the morning darkness.
On March 6, 1836, Santa Anna launched his assault on the Alamo after 13 days of siege. Texas artillery held off the Mexican army, but they regrouped and eventually overwhelmed the Alamo defenders and poured into the mission by the hundreds
After a few hours, all the 182 defenders and 600 Mexicans were dead. Santa Anna spared the women, children, and a slave named Joe. Santa Anna felt that the defeat of the Alamo would end the Texas Revolution, but it only convinced the Texans to fight harder.
The Alamo FACTS Myths Everybody wore Raccoon skin hats in the war If they got reinforcements, Americans would have won that battle 10,000 Mexicans were killed Because Americans lost, this battle did not matter in the long run • 55-60 minute fight • Texans did not stand a chance in defeating the Mexican Army • 1,000ish Mexicans killed • This was a major turning point in the Texas Revolution
Texas Declares Independence The Convention of 1836 was held at Washington-on-the-Brazos to vote on Independence Some delegates were former members of the United States and Mexican Governments.
The vote for independence was unanimous Although two of the signers of the Declaration were Tejano, many Tejanos opposed the declaration
Texan Independence • On March 2, 1836, Texas seceded from Mexico, becoming an independent country. Flag of the Republic of Texas (1836 – 1845)
A few days later, the delegates learned of the siege of the Alamo and wanted to leave to go to the aid of the Alamo defenders. Sam Houston convinced the delegates to stay because Texas needed a constitution to form a legitimate government.
The Texas Constitution was modeled after the United States Constitution and guaranteed: • Freedom speech • Freedom of the press • Freedom of religion • Right to trial by jury
But the constitution also legalized slavery, and required free blacks to petition Congress for permission to stay in Texas. Among those who had to make a petition was Samuel McCulloch Jr., the first Texan to shed blood in the Revolution.
Since Texas was at war and could not hold elections, an ad interim (temporary) government was installed until elections could be held.
President Vice-President David G. Burnet Lorenzo de Zavala
Runaway Scrape In Gonzales , he heard rumors of the fall of the Alamo and sent scouts lead by “Deaf” Smith to find out what happened. Deaf Smith Sam Houston left the convention and headed for San Antonio. The scouts found the Alamo survivors and brought them back to Gonzales where they told the story of the Alamo.
Sam Houston used the retreat to gain time to train his army, as well as to tire out the larger Mexican force chasing them. Word came that Santa Anna was approaching Gonzales, so Houston ordered the town burned and took his army east. As the Texas army moved east, citizens also left their homes to escape Santa Anna.
While General Urrea fought with Fannin’s troops stationed in Refugio, Fannin received orders from Sam Houston to retreat to Victoria. Fannin Goliad Massacre General Urrea was moving up the coastline and defeated many Texan troops on his march to Refugio and Goliad.
Fannin decided to wait for his troops in Refugio to return before obeying Houston, but those soldiers had been either killed or captured by General Urrea Fannin and Urrea finally met at the battle of Coleto, where Fannin was wounded.
The morning after the battle started, General Urrea received several hundred more soldiers, and Fannin decided to surrender.
The Texan prisoners were marched back to Goliad where they stayed for a week.
Battle of San Jacinto After gathering supplies and training his troops during the Runaway Scrape, Houston marched his troops down Buffalo Bayou towards Santa Anna’s camp. Houston found that Santa Anna camped out in the open in a vulnerable spot, and camped his men in a spot that was partially hidden in a grove of trees
The day before the battle, there were several small fights. In one of the fights, a private named Mirabeau B. Lamar saved the lives of two Texans and was promoted to Colonel and put in charge of the cavalry.
Before the battle, Houston sent Deaf Smith on a special mission to destroy the bridge at Vince's Bayou. This effectively destroyed the retreat route for both the Mexican army as well as his Texans .
On April 21, 1836 Houston ordered his army to attack the exhausted Mexican soldiers as they took their afternoon siestas. words
Taken by surprise, 630 Mexican soldiers were killed and 730 captured in 18 minutes of fighting
The next day, Santa Anna was captured while hiding in the nearby marshes. Texas Independence was secured.