Philosophies regarding quality juran and crosby
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Philosophies Regarding Quality – Juran and Crosby. Prepared by: Bhakti Joshi Date : December 12, 2012. Brief Characteristics of Deming’s Quality Principles. Introduced Statistical Process Control (SPC) to measure quality Introduced “Plan, Do, Study/Check, Act” (Quality Circle)

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Philosophies regarding quality juran and crosby

Philosophies Regarding Quality – Juran and Crosby

Prepared by: Bhakti Joshi

Date: December 12, 2012

Brief characteristics of deming s quality principles
Brief Characteristics of Deming’s Quality Principles

  • Introduced Statistical Process Control (SPC) to measure quality

  • Introduced “Plan, Do, Study/Check, Act” (Quality Circle)

    • Design the product

    • Make it; test it

    • Put it on the market

    • Test consumption behaviour and underlying reasons

Origins of juran s philosophy
Origins of Juran’s Philosophy

  • Juran’s father was a shoemaker during the pre-industrialisation era

  • Juran’s father presided over the entire production process

  • Juran considered his father to be a producer and his own customer

  • Father had an assembly line following the concept of division of labour

  • Each artisan controlled every step and understood every error that was made

  • This process changed after industrialisation across industries

Juran s trilogy
Juran’s Trilogy

Quality Planning

Quality Control

Quality Improvement

  • Identify Customers

  • Determine Customer needs

  • Develop product features

  • Establish quality goals

  • Develop a process to produce needed product features

  • Prove process capabilities that can meet quality goals

  • Choose control subjects

  • Choose units of measurement

  • Establish measurement

  • Establish standards of performance

  • Measure actual performance

  • Interpret the difference (Actual vs standard)

  • Take action on difference

  • Prove the need for improvement

  • Identify specific projects for improvement

  • Organise to guide the projects

  • Organize for diagnoses – for discovery of causes

  • Provide remedies

  • Prove that remedies are effective under current conditions

  • Provide for control to hold gains

Brief characteristics of juran s trilogy
Brief Characteristics of Juran’s Trilogy

  • Product features that met customer needs

  • Quality is always planned

  • Introduced the concept of calculating costs of poor quality

  • Encouraged alterations in processes without adding additional conditions or parameters

  • Questioned or debated the need for ‘Customer Care Services’, ‘Warranties’

  • Introduced Quality by Design (QdB), (Example, United States’ Food and Drug Administration (FDA))

  • Introduced the “Pareto Principle” (80% consequences stem from 20% of the causes)

Differences in deming s and juran s philosophies
Differences in Deming’s and Juran’s Philosophies

  • Deming’s philosophy on quality was a comprehensive theory whereas Juran’s philosophy was an analytical and practical approach

  • Deming focused on description (use of SPC) and systematic view of a business whereas Juran focused on managing quality and quality functions

  • Deming was a philosopher who provided a different view or perspective, whereas Juran was a practitioner who desired to teach business practices

Similarities in deming s and juran s philosophies
Similarities in Deming’s and Juran’s Philosophies

  • Deming’s argument on variations and Juran’s argument on quality planning, both focus on improvement in processes. Both philosophies are related to “Quality Circle”

  • Deming and Juran observed that for a business to succeed, quality management efforts need the long-term commitment and involvement of top management

  • Rejected reliance on slogans to motivate workers mainly because the performance depended upon the business’ systems and not the operators

  • Both have concerns regarding current practices like incentive pay that are based on faulty or outmoded premises

  • Placed great importance on planning as decisions made “upstream” or at top management effect the final results

  • Both focused on customer-needs and rely heavily on market research though Juran’s approach is engineering-driven that translated customers’ vision of quality into what can be produced

Quality circle
Quality Circle

  • Dr. Ishikawa of Mushashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo added a dimension to quality

  • Derived from the concept of Plan-Do-Check-Act developed by Deming

  • Also inspired by Juran’s Trilogy especially quality control

  • Basic elements – A group of volunteers trained to identify, analyse and solve work-related problems and present solutions to the management to improve performance of the organisation

Quality circle case study
Quality circle – Case Study

  • Name of the organisation – Workshop at University Polytechnic, Aligarh Muslim University (AMU)

  • Section where the circle is operating – Machine and fitting shop

  • Number of meetings held – 10

  • Problems:

    • Material wastes

    • Losses in savings and finances

    • Constrained relationship between workers and managers

Quality circle case study contd
Quality circle – Case Study (contd…)

  • Issues related to individuals, machines, material and methods

  • Material consumption – Iron & Steel products

  • Problem solving techniques:

    • Team work or brainstorming

    • Data collection

    • Pareto principle (80/20 rule: 20% of defects caused 80% of the problems or 80% of stock comes from 20% of your suppliers or 20% of the staff will cause 80% of problems or 20% of workers will generate 80% of your production – to focus on the 20%)

    • Ishikawa diagram (Fishbone diagram) – causal diagrams

    • Cumulative line diagram

Quality circle case study contd1
Quality circle – Case Study (contd…)

  • Causes related to individuals - lack of knowledge about materials; no proper instructions; materials cut more than required; lack of knowledge on operations or handling tools

  • Causes related to machines – machines not operating at optimum conditions; frictional wear of machine parts; problems with misalignment of machine components; no implementation of new and automatic machines

  • Causes related to methods – no inspection of shop after materials used; no proper storage of materials; lack of knowledge for improving existing methods of production

  • Causes related to material – no proper inspection of material dimension before cutting; materials did not have required composition

Quality circle case study contd2
Quality circle – Case Study (contd…)

  • Results:

    • Improvement in inter-personal relationship

    • Self-confidence was developed in solving more complex problems related to production

    • Building teamwork

    • Material wastes were reduced with regular inspections

    • Overall decrease in wastes and increase in finances and savings

About philip crosby
About Philip Crosby

  • Employed as a quality control engineer at Martin Company’s (now Lockheed Martin) missile production plant

  • Function was to determine whether intensified inspection would result in ability to ship missiles completely free of defects

  • Coined the concept of Zero-Defects (Z-D)

  • Current system allowed less defects to reach customers with huge amount of inspection company wished NO defects

  • Crosby persuaded workers in his department to sign “no defects” pledges.

  • Resulted into delivery of a Pershing missile two weeks ahead of schedule with no detectable defects among its 25,000 parts

  • Crosby’s name became synonymous with the term ‘zero defects’

Philip b crosby s principles of quality
Philip B. Crosby’s Principles of Quality

  • Crosby worked for Martin Company which became currently Lockheed Martin, representing the aerospace industry

  • DIRFT – “do it right first time”

  • Coined the concept of “Zero Defects” based on 4 underlying principles

    • Quality is conformance to requirements

    • Defect prevention is preferable to quality inspection and correction

    • Zero defects is the quality standard

    • Quality is measured as the Price of Nonconformance (PONC)

  • Argued that mistakes are caused by two things – lack of knowledge or lack of attention

Philip b crosby s 14 step quality improvement program
Philip B. Crosby’s 14 Step Quality Improvement Program

1. Management Commitment

Communication instead of motivation to management regarding quality

2. Quality Improvement Team

Each department’s representative forms a team and appoint one of them to head the team

3. Quality Measurement

Standardized measurements that reflect possibility of defects

4. Cost of Quality Evaluation (COQ)

Indication of corrective action towards reducing costs leading to profits

Philip b crosby s 14 step quality improvement program1
Philip B. Crosby’s 14 Step Quality Improvement Program

5. Quality Awareness

Communication about quality to workforce

6. Corrective Action

Encourage everyone to highlight any issues, problems, concerns, etc that can be rectified immediately

7. Establish an Ad hoc committee for the Zero Defects Program

Everyone understands and practices ‘zero defects’

8. Supervisor Training

Conducting orientation with all levels of management

Philip b crosby s 14 step quality improvement program2
Philip B. Crosby’s 14 Step Quality Improvement Program

9. Zero Defects Day

Emphasis on the commitment

10. Goal Setting

Determining tasks for the team for a 30, 60 or 90 day time period

11. Error Cause Removal

Providing inputs on errors

12. Recognition

Establish award programs for individuals meeting goals or performing acts ensuring quality

Philip b crosby s 14 step quality improvement program3
Philip B. Crosby’s 14 Step Quality Improvement Program

13. Quality councils

Bring quality professionals and team together to regularly communicate, determine actions and improve quality program

14. Do it Over Again

Set up a new team after 18 months and repeat the program all over

Costs of quality coq
Costs of Quality (COQ)

  • Prevention costs – costs incurred in preventing poor quality or defects from occurring; Related to quality control

  • Appraisal costs – Costs incurred in the process of uncovering defects; related to costs of inspections, testing, audits etc.

  • Internal failure costs – costs associated with discovering poor product quality before reaching the customer. For e.g. rework, wastes, machine downtime, etc

  • External failure costs – Costs associated with quality problems that occur at the customer site that damages customer faith and loyalty

Quality assurance
Quality Assurance

  • Two Principles:

    • Juran’s principle of “Fit for purpose”

    • Crosby’s principle of “Do it Right First Time”

  • Systematic monitoring and evaluation of various aspects of a project, service or facility to maximise probability that standards of quality are being attained by the production process

Quality assurance and total quality management
Quality Assurance and Total Quality Management

  • An integrated organizational effort designed to improve quality at every level

  • Value for price paid – assumes quality is price sensitive. For example, a personal finance seminar conducted in two different schools but at different fees - Greater value for the price

  • Support services – quality also associated with people, processes and organizational environment –

  • Psychological criteria – Focuses on judgmental evaluation of what constitutes product or service quality – Reputation of Rolex or Mercedes-Benz

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