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Perceptual Borders in a borderless Century and Impacts on Destination Visitation. Dr. Omar Moufakkir Tourism Management STENDEN UNIVERSITY. HERITAGE AND CULTURAL TOURISM CONFERENCE, JERUSALEM, JUNE 17-19, 2008.
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Dr. Omar Moufakkir
HERITAGE AND CULTURAL TOURISM CONFERENCE, JERUSALEM, JUNE 17-19, 2008
“Image is the set of beliefs, ideas, impressions and perceptions that we have mentally constructed of a place” (Espel and Benito, 2005) , “product or destination” (Kotler, 1999)
The importance of image has been widely recognised in the tourism literature:
Civil rights violations
Art and Music
“Most country images are stereotypes, extreme simplification of the reality that are not necessarily accurate. They might be dated, based on exceptions rather than patterns, on impressions rather than on facts, but nonetheless pervasive” (Kotler and Gertner, 2004)
Cross-cultural misunderstanding is generated by negative perceptions. People’s perceptions help form stereotypes
Generally, stereotypes are resistant to change, and are long lasting. They are usually inaccurate and may often contribute to negative and prejudicial evaluations and actions (Frankowski-Braganza, 1983; Greenwald and Banaji 1995).
The purpose of the study was to understand destination image from a socio-cultural perspective, with a particular focus on Morocco and Turkey
First impressions start at home
A destination image study is unique to that specific destination. That is, there is no one fit-all instrument or cookbook that can be used to examine the images of different destinations.
How people act
What people feel
What people know or don’t know
In the absence of experience, the destination is assessed on the
basis of subjective perceptions, not reality (Fridgen, 1991)
Positive, yet weak, and confused
Negative but less
Negative even more
Although Morocco offers a ‘superb’ and diversified tourism product, it has not been favorably positioned in the minds of potential Dutch tourists.
I think the bad Moroccans are here and the worst ones are over there!!
Figure 6. Descriptors of the Turks living in Germany.
Figure 7. Descriptors of the Turks living in Turkey.
Figure 8. Descriptors of Turkey as a Tourism Destination.
People branding starts with asking the questions: who am I, how am I perceived by others, and what can help me achieve the most desirable position in the minds of others?
The enlargement of the European Community, and the resulting increase in immigration (e.g. refugees, asylum seekers, commuters, delocalized workers) present new challenges to the definitions of hospitality (Rosello, 2001), and represent a new reality for marketers (Ouellet, 2007), and destination marketing organizations (DMOs).
The French people declares itself to be the friend of all peoples; it will religiously respect treaties and flags; it offers asylum in its harbors to ships from all over the world; it offers asylum to great men and virtuous unfortunates of all countries; its ships at sea will protect foreign ships against storms. Foreigners and their customs will be respected in its bosom (1793).
Today: Forteress France
The rise and fall, and rise and rise of the extreme right in old as well as new nation states is a testimony to the need to revise hospitality in the immigration context, and immigration in the tourism destination image context.
Netherlands have started feeling the toll of the short-sighted decision made by their politicians. The Turks and the Moroccans who were allowed to migrate into the country have started acting as radical Islamics against the same government…