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Perceptual Borders in a borderless Century and Impacts on Destination Visitation. Dr. Omar Moufakkir Tourism Management STENDEN UNIVERSITY. HERITAGE AND CULTURAL TOURISM CONFERENCE, JERUSALEM, JUNE 17-19, 2008.

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perceptual borders in a borderless century and impacts on destination visitation

Perceptual Borders in a borderless Century and Impacts on Destination Visitation

Dr. Omar Moufakkir

Tourism Management

STENDEN UNIVERSITY

HERITAGE AND CULTURAL TOURISM CONFERENCE, JERUSALEM, JUNE 17-19, 2008

slide2

“Image is the set of beliefs, ideas, impressions and perceptions that we have mentally constructed of a place” (Espel and Benito, 2005) , “product or destination” (Kotler, 1999)

role of image in destination selection
Role of image in destination selection

The importance of image has been widely recognised in the tourism literature:

  • To understand markets
  • To know thyself
  • To know competition
  • To position thyself
  • To project visitation
slide5

Negative Factors

Image

Positive Factors

Epidemics

Political riots

Civil rights violations

Economic turmoil

Poverty

Violent crime

Geography

History

Art and Music

Famous people

Other features

slide6

Destination

Choice

Internal Factors

External Factors

Images

Perceptions

Motives

Attitudes

Beliefs

  • Time Attributes
  • Cost
  • Buyer characteristics
  • Benefits
slide7

“Most country images are stereotypes, extreme simplification of the reality that are not necessarily accurate. They might be dated, based on exceptions rather than patterns, on impressions rather than on facts, but nonetheless pervasive” (Kotler and Gertner, 2004)

slide8

Cross-cultural misunderstanding is generated by negative perceptions. People’s perceptions help form stereotypes

  • People use stereotypes when they lack deep knowledge of each other (Fridgen, 1991; Lippman, 1965; Pool, 1978; Triandis, 1972; Reisiger and Turner, 2004)
slide9

Generally, stereotypes are resistant to change, and are long lasting. They are usually inaccurate and may often contribute to negative and prejudicial evaluations and actions (Frankowski-Braganza, 1983; Greenwald and Banaji 1995).

  • However, they are functional and serve a purpose, in that they offer an idea about popular beliefs and identify the characteristics of a culture or a group of people. They help to create indicators of people’s attitudes and feelings that are strongly positive or negative, as well as to understand the sources of conflict (Reisinger and Turner, 2003).
slide11

The purpose of the study was to understand destination image from a socio-cultural perspective, with a particular focus on Morocco and Turkey

  • “For instance, first impressions of taxi drivers, security officers, airline hostesses, baggage assistants, registration staff and so on, decide whether or not tourists will be willing to interact with hosts in the future (Reisinger and Turner, 2004:149)

First impressions start at home

slide12

Method

  • Dominance of research based on scale construction
  • Respondents can respond only to variables identified by the researcher
  • It is possible for respondents to enter simultaneously both positive and negative components of image (Auckland is both seedy and exciting) Echtner and Ritchie, 1991
  • Individual components of image can possess both positive and negative connotation (Auckland is multicultural)
  • Images are contextualized within the myths of “the unchanged”, “the unrestrained, and “the uncivilized” Echtner and Prasa, 2003
slide13

A destination image study is unique to that specific destination. That is, there is no one fit-all instrument or cookbook that can be used to examine the images of different destinations.

slide15

How people react

How people act

What people feel

What people know or don’t know

In the absence of experience, the destination is assessed on the

basis of subjective perceptions, not reality (Fridgen, 1991)

slide19

Actual

Positive, yet weak, and confused

Unhealthy

Positive

Not Exciting

Negative but less

Not Promising

Negative even more

slide20

Positive Factors

Future

Destination attributes

Negative Factors

Image

Poverty

Climate

Democracy

Women’s condition

Religion

Immigration

IGNORANCE

Narrow-mindedness

within

without

slide21

Although Morocco offers a ‘superb’ and diversified tourism product, it has not been favorably positioned in the minds of potential Dutch tourists.

  • Most destinations have superb five-star resorts and attractions, every country claims a unique culture, landscape and heritage, each place describes itself as having the friendliest people, and high standards of customer service and facilities are now expected (Morgan and Pritchard, 2004: 60).
slide22

“I heard the bad Turks are here and the good ones are over there”

I think the bad Moroccans are here and the worst ones are over there!!

how are the turks living in germany perceived by the germans
How are the Turks living in Germany perceived by the Germans?

Figure 6. Descriptors of the Turks living in Germany.

how are the turks living in turkey perceived by the germans
How are the Turks living in Turkey perceived by the Germans?

Figure 7. Descriptors of the Turks living in Turkey.

how do germans perceive turkey as a tourism destination
How do Germans perceive Turkey as a tourism destination?

Figure 8. Descriptors of Turkey as a Tourism Destination.

slide27

Actual

Positive

Healthy

Negative

Exciting

Positive

Promising

people branding
People Branding
  • Like brands, people do evolve as well. Like brands, people, too, are challenged by bad news and glocal crises.
  • In an attempt to address negative perceptions, people branding suggests a balance between reality and perceptions. How people are is not necessarily how they are being perceived.
slide29

People branding starts with asking the questions: who am I, how am I perceived by others, and what can help me achieve the most desirable position in the minds of others?

  • Answers to these questions may help reduce perceptual borders, change perceptions, and correct misconceptions.
slide30

The enlargement of the European Community, and the resulting increase in immigration (e.g. refugees, asylum seekers, commuters, delocalized workers) present new challenges to the definitions of hospitality (Rosello, 2001), and represent a new reality for marketers (Ouellet, 2007), and destination marketing organizations (DMOs).

slide31

The French people declares itself to be the friend of all peoples; it will religiously respect treaties and flags; it offers asylum in its harbors to ships from all over the world; it offers asylum to great men and virtuous unfortunates of all countries; its ships at sea will protect foreign ships against storms. Foreigners and their customs will be respected in its bosom (1793).

Today: Forteress France

slide32

The rise and fall, and rise and rise of the extreme right in old as well as new nation states is a testimony to the need to revise hospitality in the immigration context, and immigration in the tourism destination image context.

immigration hospitality revisited
Immigration: Hospitality revisited
  • The move from culture shock to culture unrest
  • Culture unrest might refer to a context where two cultures live together, but at a level of acceptance that has developed from euphoria, apathy, to annoyance, or even antagonism in some contexts.
slide36

GLOBALIZATION: BELESSING OR BLIGHT?

Netherlands have started feeling the toll of the short-sighted decision made by their politicians. The Turks and the Moroccans who were allowed to migrate into the country have started acting as radical Islamics against the same government…

http://www.merinews.com/catFull.jsp?articleID=135421