GCSE PE Revision. St Mary’s High School REVISION GUIDE. What is a HEALTHY, ACTIVE LIFESTYLE? “A lifestyle that contributes positively to physical, mental and social wellbeing and includes regular exercise and physical activity”.
GCSE PE Revision St Mary’s High School REVISION GUIDE
What is a HEALTHY, ACTIVE LIFESTYLE?“A lifestyle that contributes positively to physical, mental and social wellbeing and includes regular exercise and physical activity” What are the benefits of taking part in physical activity? • Social Meet people, Make friends. Co-operation Competition Physical challenge Aesthetic appreciation • Mental Relieve stress/tension Stress-related illness • Physical Improve body shape Good health
6 INFUENCES on your Healthy, Active Lifestyle Image Fashion: the best boots, clothing and equipment Media: increases popularity London Marathon, New Year, Wimbledon Health Illness Conditions People Family Peers Role Models Cultural Factors Disability: resources, opportunities, funding Age:some sports have age-restrictions e.g. minimum 18 for Marathon Gender: women’s football taken less seriously then men’s Race:ethnic background – fewer Asian footballers than other races Resources Availability: if people are willing, facilities need to be provided Location:local availability e.g. lack of space in inner-city areas Access: parking, public transport to facilities Time:availability for demand: school facilities available “after hours” Good or bad role model? Socio-Economic Cost: hire of facilities and equipment e.g. ice-rink, skates Status:employed (more disposable income), unemployed (need to save money)
OPPORTUNITIES to Become INVOLVED Where are you? Physical Education is not just about being the best performer in a sport! INITIATIVES To Get People Involved Government: At least 2 hours of high quality PE per week PESSCL: Strengthens links between school and local clubs (ages 5-16) ‘Club Links’ Opportunity to be performer, leader, official, volunteer ‘Step Into Sport’ Sport England: Start (participate), Stay (competition and Succeed (talented can progress) Youth Sport Trust TOPS 14-16 – organise festivals in local primaries, sports leadership courses Active Kids Supermarkets run voucher programmes to aid purchase of equipment
Key Definitions Health “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. Fitness “The ability to meet the demands of the environment”. “a form of physical activity done primarily to improve one’s health and physical fitness” Exercise Performance “How well a task is completed” Remember you can be fit but not healthy e.g. Sir Steve Redgrave has diabetes but is a 5-time Olympic champion
5 HRF Definitions and their Tests • C.V. fitness: “the ability to exercise the entire body for long periods of time”. TEST: 12-min Cooper Run or Bleep Test • Muscular Strength: “The ability to apply force and overcome resistance”. TEST: Gripometer • Muscular Endurance: “The ability to use muscles, many times without getting tired”. TEST: Sit-Up Bleep Test • Flexibility: “The range of movement at a joint.” TEST: Sit and Reach • Body composition: “The percentage of body weight which is fat muscle and bone.” TEST: BMI
Remember you need to fill in a Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PARQ) prior to taking part in activity to assess the level of risk and use the right protocols to perform safely. 6 Skill-Related Fitness Components (BCRAPS) • Balance retain centre of mass over base of support TEST: Stork Balance Test • Co-ordination to use two or more body parts together TEST: Tennis Ball Throw • Reaction Time time between the presentation of a stimulus and onset of movement TEST: Ruler Drop • Agility ability to change direction at speed TEST: Illinois Agility Run • Power ability to do strength movements quickly: strength x speed TEST: Standing Broad Jump (Long Jump) • Speed how fast your body can move over a short distance TEST: 30m Sprint
Principles of Training • Individual Needs“matching training to the requirements of the individual” e.g. struggle to complete game therefore CV fitness • Specificity: “matching training to the requirements of the activity” e.g. goalkeepers training for agility, midfielders for cardiovascular fitness • Progressive Overload: “gradually increasing he amount of overload so as to gain fitness without the risk of injury”. • Rest:“The period of time allotted to recovery” • Recovery:“The time required to repair damage caused by training” • Reversibility:“any adaptation from training is reversed during inactivity”
F.I.T.T Principle Overload is applied to a training programme by using the FITT principle. Increase the… Frequencyhow often Increase the… Intensity how hard Increase the… Time how long Choose correct…Type of exercise method of training e.g. someone wanting to improve their CV Endurance Frequency - 3 times per week Intensity - 60-80% of maximum HR Time - 30 minutes per session Type - Method e.g. continuous running
Goal Setting People who set sensible goals are able to focus their energies on their training and achieve them. Specific e.g. I want to run half a lap further in the 12-min run Measurablee.g. running half a lap further – easy to measure! Achievable e.g. training plan to build on CV fitness – half lap achieved! Realistice.g. running half a lap is more realistic than 4 extra laps Time-bound e.g. 6 week training programme – put a clear end point in This are the first steps towards designing your Personal Exercise Programme (PEP)
Each is designed for a specific purpose, to improve a specific aspect of fitness - combination ofMETHODS develop sporting performance (CROSS TRAINING) Training Methods CONTINUOUS Defined as:“high duration, low intensity exercise without rest periods” e.g. (30 mins jogging) Sports: e.g. cycling, swimming, team sports in pre-season to build aerobic base Advantages: Cheap, wide range of activities available, can apply FITT to suit needs INTERVAL Defined as:“high intensity periods of work followed by defined periods of rest” e.g. (sprint 60m, 30s rest)x6, 5-min rest then perform set again - SPEED e.g. (15 mins jogging, 3 minutes rest) x4 – CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS Sports: e.g. Swimming, Athletics, Football Advantages: improves speed and CV fitness, high intensity, works high HR zones SPRINT 30s rest SPRINT30s rest CIRCUIT Defined as:“A number of exercises arranged to avoid training the same muscle groups” e.g. (6-10 stations can work muscles and CV system, also skills in your sport) e.g. work for set time (1 min), set reps (30 reps), rest for 2 mins at end of 1 circuit Sports: e.g. football, cricket, tennis, badminton Advantages: work (strength, speed, CV, muscular endurance in 1 session), aerobic/anaerobic FARTLEK Swedish for ‘Speed Play’ Defined as:“A combination of fast and slow running” Sports: e.g. rugby, football, netball – those with changes in speed throughout Advantages: can include hill work and different terrains, flexible to suit individual sport/needs JOG---SPRINT--- 75%---JOG WEIGHT Defined as:“a common type of training to develop strength and size of skeletal muscles” Sports: e.g. speed, strength, power sports (long jump, javelin, football, rugby) Advantages: can improve musc. strength, musc. endurance, power, easy to overload, variety
Exercise Session • Warm up: PREVENTS INJURY, IMPROVES PERF. Pulse raisers, stretches, mobilising joints • Main activity: WORKS SPECIFIC GOALS/COMPONENTS Skills, drills, tactics • Cool down: PREPARES FOR FUTURE SESSIONS To remove lactic acid and repay oxygen debt. Target Heart Rate Zones • Heart rate = “number of times the heart beats per min” • Maximum heart rate = (220 – age) • Training/ target zones are calculated using this equation • Less than 60% MHR = Recovery zone (cool down) • 60 – 80% MHR = Aerobic training zone • 80 - 90% MHR = Anaerobic training zone • 90 – 95% MHR = Speed training zone.
Anaerobic Exercise • Without O2 (Oxygen) • Very short period of time 1-10 seconds How would you improve your ability to work anaerobically? • Work very, very hard in short bursts • Be around 85% of your maximum heart rate • (220 - age = 100%) • GLUCOSE = ENERGY + LACTIC ACID
Aerobic Exercise • Exercise with (using) O2 • Over a long period of time How would you improve your ability to work aerobically? • Work hard and for a long time(at least 20 minutes in training zone) • Work between 60% and 80% of the maximum heart rate • (for a 14 year old that is between approx 125-170bpm) • Use large muscle groups • GLUCOSE + OXYGEN = CO2 + WATER + ENERGY
Diet and Nutrition Dietary Intake and Performance • Calcium • Iron • ‘C’ • Meat • Cheese • Bread • Cereal • Strong teeth and bones • Help the blood to carry O2 • To prevent scurvy • Growth and repair • Slow energy • Fast energy • Helps digestion • Needs to be replaced • Minerals • Vitamins • Protein • Fat • Carbohydrates • Fibre • Water Carbo-LoadingA system mainly used by marathon runnerse.g. Marathon 1 week today (Sunday) Protein-rich foods (Mon-Tues) – depletes carb stores Carb-rich foods (Weds-Sat) – fully replenishes storesBody is fooled into storing more carbs due to starvation processThe protein is needed to repair muscle, carbs to fuel the activity.It is important to take food within the 2 hours after a race/activity to replenish lost stores.Blood-Flow During ExerciseBlood is shunted from other areas of the body (particularly organs) to the working muscle during exercise.Less blood is available to digest food in the gut – can cause cramp.Exercise should ideally not start until 2-3 hours after the meal. • Most • Valuable • Player • Football • Club • F • W • Minerals • Vitamins • Protein • Fat • Carbohydrates • Fibre • Water Ensure you know why calcium and Iron are needed
Extreme Body Types (Somatotypes) • Endomorph – lots of fat • Mesomorph – lots of muscle • Ectomorph - skinny • Overweight Having weight in excess of normal. Not harmful unless accompanied by over-fatness • Over-fat Having body fat in excess of normal • Obese Describes people who are very over-fat • Anorexia A prolonged eating disorder due to the loss of appetite • Optimum Weight Best weight or desirable weight – the best weight a player performs at
***(Potential 6 mark question for you to discuss)*** Factors Affecting Optimum Weight • Height – taller people often (not always) heavier • Gender – Men/women have different body composition • Bone Structure – ‘Frame’ of skeleton depends on bone structure e.g. broad shoulders/thick wrists compared to narrow shoulders/hips • Muscle Girth – increases with training, larger muscle weighs more so sportspeople need to look at the appropriate charts • Genetics – body weight and shape are largely passed on by parents OPTIMUM WEIGHT IN SPORT Needs to be compared to similar with sports, positions and events e.g. between forwards in rugby, jockeys in horse racing and footballers. The rules of a sport can often govern what an optimum weight is (boxing weights for example)
Anabolic Steroids Drugs that mimic the male sex hormone testosterone and promote bone/muscle growth. • Increase strength and allow you to train harder and recover faster • Produce results quicker • Increase aggression Side effects: Increased risk of heart attack/stroke, high blood pressure, liver disease, infertility, death Peptide Hormones Diuretics Beta Blockers Drugs that cause other hormones to be produced. • Human Growth Hormone (HGH), EPO used for anaemia but increases RBC so improved aerobic capacity • Increase muscle growth • Assist recovery • Increase red blood cells (RBC) Side effects: Thickens blood, causes dehydration, increased risk of heart attack/stroke Drugs that elevate the rate of urine production. • Misused by boxers & jockeys who need to lose weight to make the correct weight. Side effects: Dehydration – dizziness, muscle cramps, headaches and nausea, also kidney disease Drugs that are used to control the heart rate and have a calming/relaxing effect. • Prescribed to those with heart problems to maintain low heart rate and blood pressure • Stress and anxiety levels reduced • Improves steadiness of hand and precision • Aids performance in archery, snooker, ski-jumping, gymnastics Side effects: Reduces heart rate to dangerously lo levels, nausea, depression, insomnia, nightmares Stimulants Narcotics/Analgesics Drugs that have an effect on the central nervous system, such as increased mental and / or physical awareness. • Amphetamines, Cocaine, Ephedrine • Help to overcome tiredness • Offset the effects of lactic acid Side effects: Insomnia, irritability, irregular heart beat, high blood pressure, addiction Drugs that can be used to reduce and / or mask pain. • Heroin, methadone, morphine • Can return to competition quicker • Increase risk of long-term injury Side effects: Loss of: concentration, balance, co-ordination, bring on hallucinations Performance-Enhancing Drugs (B.S.N.A.P.D)
Recreational Drugs Nicotine Cigarettes. Nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide. Affects sports performance by getting less oxygen to working muscles so aerobic fitness is decreased. Improves alertness but extremely addictive. Alcohol Affects co-ordination, balance, reaction time. Acts as a SEDATIVE, slowing reactions and impairing judgement. Increases dehydration Socially Acceptable Drugs Socially Unacceptable Drugs Drugs prescribed over the counter by a doctor such as paracetamol and aspirin to treat medical conditions Illegal and unacceptable to most people e.g. heroin, cocaine, LSD. All have negative effects and can lead to death.
Risk Assessment and Preventing Injuries
Risk Assessment and Prevention of Injury Warming Up / Cooling Down WU – warm the muscles gradually to prevent injury CD – prevents injury and disperses lactic acid preventing soreness and aches Checking Equipment and Facilities • Are they safe and secure? • In good condition? • Check pitch-side for debris, are the markings clear? Rules Ensure safety and help the game flow Ensure fairness and give the game structure. When broken, participants are punished by bans/fines Protective Equipment and Clothing • Football, Hockey, Sailing. • Remove jewellery, ensure your equipment isn’t a danger to others. • Footwear – appropriate to activity e.g. length of studs, supportive for the ankles, comfortable. Physical Readiness Completing a physical activity readiness questionnaire is important to ensure all those participating are safe and healthy to do so. It highlights beforehand any potential issues. Balanced Competition • Weight Categories Weightlifting, Boxing • Mixed/Single sex Contact sports split e.g. rugby, football Athletics – split on fair competition grounds Hockey/Racquet sports – mixed and open comp • Age Children split in age group Seniors/Veterans in golf, marathon, tennis • Handicap System Golf to allow those of mixed ability to play together Example Question All sporting activities have clearly stated rules. State three reasons why we have rules in sport. (3)
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REMEMBER !!!As soon as the exam starts write these key points down • Mental, Social, Physical benefits • HRF – Body Comp, CV, Musc.Endurance, Flexibility, Musc.Strength (FBMMC) • SRF – Balance, Co-ord, Reaction time, Agility, Power, Speed. (BCRAPS) • SPORRI - Specificity, Progressive Overload, Rest and Recovery, Individual Needs • Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type. (FITT)