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Constitutionalism & Republics. APEH, chapter 16. Bellringer. On a separate sheet of paper… Summarize how the Netherland’s gained their independence List four things you know about the development of England. Golden Age of Dutch Republic.

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  • On a separate sheet of paper…

    • Summarize how the Netherland’s gained their independence

    • List four things you know about the development of England

Golden age of dutch republic
Golden Age of Dutch Republic

  • United Provinces of Netherlands became core of modern Dutch state in 1581

    • Officially recognized in Treaty of Westphalia in 1648

    • Wealthy thanks to Atlantic trade

  • With independence came internal dissension

    • Each province had a stadholder(official) responsible for leading an army and attending States General

    • States General-weakened during wars with France & England

  • 17th Century wars saw economic decline for Dutch

How did dutch spend new wealth
How did Dutch spend new wealth?

  • Amsterdam made money from fishing and transporting other countries’ goods

    • Fluyt-shallowdraft ship of large capacity

  • Amsterdam became commercial capital of Europe

    • Built canals

    • Tall, narrow fronted houses along canals

    • Became crossroads

  • Manufacturers, shipyard owners, merchants became top society

    • Wealthy burghers began to shed Calvinist ways by end of 17th century


  • Elizabeth died with no heir

    • Mary Queen of Scots (Elizabeth’s cousin) was put to death for trying to overthrow Elizabeth

    • Her son was King of Scotland (James I)

  • James I (1603-1625)

    • First Stuart to rule

    • Believed firmly in DIVINE RIGHT and ABSOLUTE MONARCHY

    • Trouble with Parliament

      • Country in debt, viewed as “outsider” from Scotland

James i
James I

  • Parliament was use to ruling with a “balanced polity”

    • refused to give money to James

  • PURITANS: strict Calvinists demanding further reform from Church of England, take power away from Church officials

    • James I sees Puritans as threat

    • Refuses most requests of reforms

  • Gentry: wealthy landowners, also Puritans and large part of House of Commons

  • England1

    • Charles I (1625-1649)

      • Popular until marrying a Catholic Princess, Louis XIII’s sister, Henrietta

      • Requested money from Parliament

      • Parliament refuses unless Charles I signs:

        • PETITION OF RIGHT: placed limits on king’s power

          • King can not levy taxes without consent of Parliament

          • Direct Challenge to Absolutism

    Charles i
    Charles I

    • At first he acquiesced

    • Taxed without permission

    • Dismisses Parliament when they become outraged

    • 1629-1640: Charles ruled without Parliament

      • Gentry opposed attempts to raise taxes without parliament

    • Added MORE ritual to church ceremonies- angering puritans


    • 1640: Charles I in debt thanks to rebellions in Scotland

      • Has to reconvene Parliament to ask for money

    • Long Parliament – didn’t disband for 20 years

      • Limitation on royal authority

      • Triennial Act- Parliament must meet at least once every three years


    • Puritans moved to abolish the appointment of bishops in Anglican Church

    • Charles I led troops into House of Commons to arrest Puritan leaders for Treason

      • Already escaped

    • Charles’ intentions shown: to take back power

    • Parliament rises up against king

    • Charles I supported by people

    • 1642: Civil War began!

    English civil war 1642 1646
    English Civil War (1642-1646)

    • ROYALISTS: nobles who supported king

    • ROUNDHEADS: supporters of Parliament

      • Puritans (New Model Army)

      • Merchants, some upper classes

      • Led by: OLIVER CROMWELL


    • Royalist Army outmatched

      • 1646, surrender

    • Phase Two begins when Charles flees

    • Oliver Cromwell dismisses all Parliament members who disagree with him

      • “Rump Parliament”


    • Rump Parliament tries Charles I for treason

    • Charles refuses to recognize Parliament’s authority

    • 1649: Found guilty, Executed in front of own palace

    Lord protector cromwell 1649 1653
    Lord Protector Cromwell (1649-1653)

    • House of Commons outlaws House of Lords and Monarchy

    • England becomes a Commonwealth

    • Cromwell: “Lord Protector of England, Scotland, Ireland”

      • Demanded complete obedience

      • Levellers-demanded freedom of speech, religious toleration, democratic republic



      • Cromwell dies, son weak leader

      • Parliament reconvenes and vote to bring back monarchy

      • 1660: Parliament invites Charles’ son to be king

    Restoration charles ii
    Restoration & Charles II

    • Charles II (1660-1685)

      • Supported religious toleration

      • Habeas Corpus Act of 1679

        • “may you have body”

        • Guarantees right to appear in court to see if accused should be held or released

    Charles being presented the first pineapple grown in England

    Columbian Exchange!


    • JAMES II

      • Charles II brother

      • Had two protestant daughters, Mary and Anne

      • 1688: James and second wife gave birth to a Catholic son!


        • 1688: Nobles invited James’ daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange to become King & Queen

    Glorious revolution
    Glorious Revolution

    William and Mary

    Had to sign:

    ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS: prevents monarchs from levying taxes without Parliament’s consent

    Creating a:

    CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY: monarchy limited by law

    Response to revolution
    Response to Revolution

    Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)

    John Locke (1632-1794)

    • Alarmed by revolutionary upheavals

    • Leviathan (1651)

      • people are guided by animalistic interests

      • Government’s role is to be a Leviathan- large sea monster- an absolute, sovereign authority needed to suppress evil

    • Argued against absolute rule

    • Two Treatises of Government

      • Humans have inalienable rights- life, liberty, property

      • Government is meant to protect rights

      • If government doesn’t live up to obligations the People have the right o rebel