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Tuesday!!!! 3/29. Explain how hormones control the menstrual cycle in human females. (Total 8 marks). FSH stimulates the development of follicles; FSH stimulates estrogen secretion (by the developing follicle); estrogen stimulates the repair of the uterus lining;

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tuesday 3 29
Tuesday!!!! 3/29
  • Explain how hormones control the menstrual cycle in human females.
  • (Total 8 marks)
slide2

FSH stimulates the development of follicles;

  • FSH stimulates estrogen secretion (by the developing follicle);
  • estrogen stimulates the repair of the uterus lining;
  • estrogen stimulates LH secretion;
  • LH causes ovulation;
  • LH causes the development of the corpus luteum;
  • LH causes secretion of progesterone;
  • progesterone causes thickening of the uterus lining / prepares uterine lining for implantation;
  • progesterone / estrogen inhibits secretion of LH / FSH;
  • falling progesterone levels at the end of the cycle allow FSH production / menstruation;
  • feedback control;
6 6 1 draw and label diagram of the adult male reproductive system
6.6.1 Draw and label diagram of the adult male reproductive system.
  • Testes- in scrotum
  • Epididymis
  • Vasdeferens- from epididymis
  • Seminal vesicle- on vas deferens prior to prostate gland
  • Prostate gland- below bladder where urethra and vas deferens join
  • Urethra- from bladder through penis
  • Bladder
  • Penis- with erectile tissue
6 6 1 draw and label diagram of the adult female reproductive system
6.6.1 Draw and label diagram of the adult female reproductive system.
  • Ovary w/follicles
  • Oviduct- showing fimbria
  • Uterus- showing endometrium (inner lining)
  • Cervix- between uterus & vagina
  • Vagina-
  • Vulva-
  • Clitoris-
  • Bladder-
  • Urethra-
6 6 2 outline the role of hormones in the menstrual cycle including
6.6.2 Outline the role of hormones in the menstrual cycle, including
  • From puberty to menopause
    • 28 days
    • Ovulation (release egg for possible fert.)
    • Endometrium becomes highly vascular –support implantation; breaks down if no impl.
      • Menstrual bleeding (sign of no pregnancy)
  • FSH (follicle stimulating hormone),
  • LH (luteinizing hormone),
  • estrogen, &
  • progesterone.
6 6 2 outline the role of hormones in the menstrual cycle including1
6.6.2 Outline the role of hormones in the menstrual cycle, including
  • FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) & LH (luteinizing hormone)
    •  prod/secretion of E (follicle cells)
    • Production of Graafian follicles (follicle cells + oocyte, maturing)
    • Ovulation (release of oocyte & inner ring of follicle cells)
6 6 2 outline the role of hormones in the menstrual cycle including2
6.6.2 Outline the role of hormones in the menstrual cycle, including
  • Estrogen
    • Bloodstream  endometrium
    •  vascularization of uterus
      • If no pregnancy, CL breaks down,  in P and E  vasc breaks down  menstrual bleeding
  • Progesterone
    • After ovulation, outer ring foll cells remain in ovary, secrete P
    • Maintains vascular endometrium (for implantation)
    • Mitosisfill in “ovul. wound” w/CL, it produces P for ~14d post-ovulation
      • If no pregnancy, CL breaks down,  in P and E  hypothal  GnRH  FSH/LH
slide11

HYPOTHALAMUS

GnRH

PITUITARY GLAND (ANT.)

- feedback

- feedback

FSH

LH

OVARIES

Progesterone (after ovulation)

Estrogen

While E&P high,

no more LH&FSH

produced,

no more foll mature.

ENDOMETRIUM OF UTERUS (INCREASED VASCULAR TISSUE)

slide13

What about birth control pills???

  • E & P in pills
  • High levels maintained
  • Hypothal doesn’t produce GnRH
  • Pituitary doesn’t produce FSH, LH
  • No new Graafian follicles
  • Ovulation doesn’t occur
slide15

6.6.3 Annotate a graph showing hormone levels in the menstrual cycle, illustrating the relationship between changes in hormone levels and ovulation, menstruation and thickening of the endometrium.

6 6 4 list three roles of testosterone in males
6.6.4 List three roles of testosterone in males.
  • pre-natal development of male genitalia
  • development of secondary sexual characteristics @ puberty
  • maintenance of sex drive throughout lifetime
natural fertilization process
Natural Fertilization Process:
  • In oviduct, 24-48 h post-ovulation
  • Several days to travel to uterus (& several mitotic divisions)
  • Implantation
  • Problems:
    • Low sperm count or impotence in male
    • Ovulation complications
    • Blockage of oviduct
6 6 5 outline the process of in vitro fertilization ivf
6.6.5 Outline the process of in vitro fertilization (IVF).
  • Woman-injections FSH ~10d
  • Many Graafian follicles develop
  • Harvest several oocytes (surg.)
  • Man-sperm donation
  • Eggs & sperm mixed in separate culture dishes
  • Microscope  which ova fertilized, normal healthy embryo(s) developing
  • 2-3 introduced to uterus for implantation
  • $$$$$$$!!!
  • Use several embryos to decrease failure rate & need to repeat procedure
  • Healthy, unused embryos frozen, can be used for later implantation if necessary
6 6 6 discuss the ethical issues associated with ivf
6.6.6 Discuss the ethical issues associated with IVF.
  • For:
  • Enables couples (otherwise unable) to have a family
  • Visibly unhealthy embryos can be eliminated from consideration for implantation
  • Genetic screening possible prior to implant., can eliminate chance of passing on gen diseases
  • IVF technology will advance, lead to further benefits in repro biology

Against:

  • Cultured embryos not implanted are frozen or destroyed
  • Legal issues: uses of frozen embryos if couple divorces
  • Genetic screening embryos could lead to society choosing desirable characteristics
  • Repro problems can be passed on genetically (IVF bypasses natural selection, genetic freq of the problem)
  • Multiple births (& problems) more frequent than w/natural conception
6 6 6 discuss the ethical issues associated with ivf1
6.6.6 Discuss the ethical issues associated with IVF.

TOK:

  • Potential risks in drug treatments woman is given
  • Concerns about artificial selection of sperm and injection of them into the egg that occurs with some IVF protocols
    • Natural selection of sperm with consequent elimination of unhealthy ones is bypassed
    • Evidence that there are higher rates of abnormality in the offspring as a result