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Urban Water

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  1. Urban Water • Extraction • Groundwater • Decreased infiltration • Surface water • Water rights • Distribution • Treatment • Filtering • Biological agents • Sludge disposal • Reuse • Use of grey water

  2. Drought • Lack of significant rainfall • Due to less precipitation • Years • Impacts • Crops and livestock • Groundwater • Increased desertification • Economy • Locations • Sahara • Australia • U.S. (2012, 1920s, 1988)

  3. Fire Triangles • Fuel – Heat – Oxygen • Fire Behavior • Topography • Weather • Fuels

  4. Fire Types • Crown • Surface • Ground • Spotting • Backfire • Blow-up • Firestorm • Prescribed • Natural • Human-caused

  5. Fire Suppression • Firelines • Backfires • Water drop • Fire retardants • Colored dye • Chemicals • Clay

  6. Firefighting Jobs • Mostly seasonal • Engine crew • Helicopters • Transportation • Drop water or retardant • Mapping technology • Hotshots • Handcrews • Smokejumpers • Airplanes • Fire lookout • Support personnel

  7. Yellowstone Fire Management History • Early humans • European expeditions • 1870s – save the forests • Suppress all fires • Leopold report (1972) • Natural fire management • Two zones • Changed after 1988 fires • Education • Defensible space

  8. What are some of the factors that contributed to high fire danger in Yellowstone during 1988? • Name some reasons why the lodgepole pine “needs” fire. • Since the lodgepole pine is the major tree type found in Yellowstone, could you argue that fire is a natural part of the ecosystem? Why or why not? • How would Yellowstone Park be different with or without fire? • Was Yellowstone Park ruined by fire? Why or why not? • What does Yellowstone Park look like when those articles were written?

  9. Daily Review #5 • Describe how the U.S.’s fire management plan has changed over the centuries. • Define drought, crown fire, prescribed burn, ground fire and back fire. • How do humans make drought conditions worse? • If you did/do live in a forested area, what would you do to protect your home from wildfires? End

  10. Bark Beetles • Several different species • Mountain pine beetle • Douglas-fir beetle • Native • Life cycle • 1 year • Larvae feed over the winter • Use glycerol

  11. Types of trees • Large diameter damaged trees • Infestations = all types • Signs • Pitch tubes • Boring dust • Woodpeckers • Yellow to red foliage • Bluestain wood

  12. Control • Limited effect • Woodpeckers • Cold temperatures • Bark removal • No chemicals • Burning or burying • Prevention • Chemicals • Pheromones • Healthy forests • Limit infected products

  13. Average Fire Year • 24 lightning caused fires • 83% burn less than 1.2 acres • 94% burn less than 100 acres • Detected at 3:03 pm

  14. 1988 Fire Statistics • 9 human caused • 42 lighting caused • 36% of park effected • 63% of burned area due to fires started outside park • 300 large mammals died • $120 million spent fighting • 25,000 people involved

  15. Creating the “Perfect” Conditions • Wet spring • Lush understory • Rain stopped • Lowered moisture content • High winds

  16. You are interviewing to be the manager of the Lotsatrees National Forest. As part of your interview, the interview committee has asked you to put together a plan to manage this forest. Your plan needs to have 2 parts. • A plan to manage the forest on a daily basis (non-fire) conditions. • A plan to manage the forest once a fire has broken out. Assume the fire started to the south and wind is pushing it into your district. Each part of this plan must have 3 different components. Give a creative presentation to sell your plan and get hired.

  17. Based on the plans you heard, select the best plan (you may select your own). In a paragraph, describe which plan you selected and defend why it is the best plan for the Lotsatrees National Forest.