Definition. “Formative Assessment encompasses all those activities undertaken by teachers and/or students which provide information to be used as feedback to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they engage” Black and Willian (2006). Aims of CA
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Definition • “Formative Assessment encompasses all those activities undertaken by teachers and/or students which provide information to be used as feedback to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they engage” Black and Willian (2006). Aims of CA • To allow learners to evaluate themselves and also in peer groups • To help teachers find out which teaching methods and materials work best. • To provide information for both the teacher and the learner to reflect on the learning process and the level of achievement • To help teachers pay attention to individual differences and learning styles of the learners • To make learners realize how well they can achieve the objectives and what they need to do and learn in order to improve
Purposes of CA • To improve both the validity and reliability of the results of pupils’ performance on tests and exercises. • To help the pupil to develop effective learning and work habits. Purposes can be achieved by following ways: 1. Longer time for collecting assessment information 2. Use of different test forms and different test situations 3. Inclusion of more complex thinking skills in the testing programme 4. Teacher assistance and remediation
CA tools • Anecdotal record • Checklist • Rating scale • Rubrics • Teaching portfolio
Anecdotal records • Anecdotal records are the written observations – word for word, action for action – of exactly what a child is doing and saying. • The teacher observes and then records a child's actions and work throughout the day while the activities are occurring. • The recording is informal. • It can be on an event, series of events or even throughout the day.
Anecdotal Records and Observation • Child's Name: Tshering • Date & Time: 18/4/ 8:45 am • Place or Learning Center: Preschool classroom-free play • Observed Event & Behaviors: • Tshering sat next to Sonam at the reading table. Then she greeted her and said “do you want to read a book with me?" Sonam said that she cannot read. Tshering replied, "We can look at the pictures then"
Checklist • A checklist is a tool for identifying the presence or absence of conceptual knowledge, skills, or behaviors of the students. • Specifically designed for assessing children's progress and development. • Checklists contain a list of behaviors or specific steps, which can be marked as Present/Absent, Complete/Incomplete, Yes /No, etc.
Format • Checklists are often presented as lists with small check boxes down the left hand side of the page. A small tick or check marks is drawn in the box after the item has been completed. Activity: Newton’s law of cooling. Name: date:
Rating scale • A scale based on descriptive words or phrases that indicates a student’s performance level. At a minimum, descriptors should define the level of performance represented by the top, bottom, and midpoint of the scale. • A series of rating scale is used to report a student’s performance.
Types of rating scale • Likert -Type Rating Scales- raters select from a list of descriptors ranging from “never” to “always” or 1 to 5 to pinpoint their perception of the student’s proficiency on a particular skill or behavior. • Numerical Rating Scale- the examiner independently rates the student’s performance on a set of predetermined skills from 0 to 10. • Graphic Rating Scale- It uses a line graph with verbal indicators spaced on the line to allow the ratter to show where the student’s performance falls on line. It supplies a line graph that represents the student’s achievement. • Descriptive Rating Scale- It replaces the single word descriptors with more detailed explanations on a line graph.
Rubric • A rubricis an authentic assessment tool used to measure students' work. It is a scoring guide that seeks to evaluate a student's performance based on the sum of a full range of criteria rather than a single numerical score. Two types of rubrics • Holistic rubrics. • Analytic rubrics. Holistic rubrics • Holistic rubrics evaluate a student's overall performance, their design limits, their ability to provide detailed feedback on a student's specific strengths and weaknesses.
Analytical rubrics • An analytical rubric consists of multiple separate scales, and therefore provides a set of scores rather than just one. • It provides detailed feedback and self-assess students understanding or performance. • Sample for this can be same as the holistic rubrics but here a detail explanation is required while evaluating the child on the given criteria. INFO
Teaching portfolio • It is the record of accomplishment in teaching which includes the document and materials that suggest the scope and quality of professor’s teaching performance. Types of teaching portfolio • A summative portfolio is created for the purpose of applying for an academic job or for promotion and tenure within a department. • A formative portfolio is created for the purpose of personal and professional development. Retrieved from http:/ucat.osu.edu/portfolio/
Student portfolio: • Writing portfolio: • Pieces of writing selected by students (book review, essay, short story, or a poem). • The number and types of genre. • Clarity of ideas. • Originality. • Reading portfolio: • Record of the reading. • Critical response to the books read.
Merits of student portfolio • It allows the evaluators to see the student as an individual, each unique with its own characteristics, needs, and strengths. • It also provides a basis for future analysis and planning. By viewing the total development of the individual participants, the evaluator can identify areas of strengths and weaknesses, and barriers to success. • It accommodates the diverse learning patterns of all students and enable each of them to realize and experience success.
References Curriculum and professional support section(1999). Continuous assessment: Classes VI to X.Thimphu: CAPSS. Wangchuk, K.(2000). The feasibility of rubrics and portfolio assessment for use in continuous assessment in Bhutan. Samtse: Karma Wangchuk. Purpose of continuous assessment. Retrieved on 20th April, 2012 from http://www.nied.edu.na/publications/journals/journalo/journal%209%20Article%202.pdf. Meaning of continuous assessment. Retrieved on 20th April from http://www.nalanda.nitc.ac.in/misc/general/ciced/Ch25.html. C.A. tools. Retrieved on 20th April from http://uzspace.uzulu.ac.za/handle/10530/531.