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1. INTRODUCTION TO WOMEN’S HEALTH. 1. “The medical model is still male in many ways. Women have been ignored far too much. This has gone on too long. It’s traditionally been that human chemistry and physiology were male until proven otherwise. Women will make a revolution in health care.”

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Presentation Transcript
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INTRODUCTION

TO

WOMEN’S HEALTH

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“The medical model is still male in many ways. Women have been ignored far too much. This has gone on too long. It’s traditionally been that human chemistry and physiology were male until proven otherwise. Women will make a revolution in health care.”

- Kathryn C. Benjamin, M.D., Past President,

American Medical Women’s Association -

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HISTORICAL DIMENSION: THE WOMEN’S HEALTH MOVEMENT

  • 1830s and 1840s: The Popular Health Movement
  • 1861 –1865:The Civil War Period
    • Elizabeth Blackwell
    • Dorothea Dix
    • Clara Barton
    • 1st Women’s Rights Convention
  • 1873 to 1890s:The Women’s Medical Movement
    • 1st training schools for nurses
    • Women attending medical schools
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  • 1890s to 1920s: The Progressive Era
    • 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
    • Equal Rights Amendment
    • Legalization of contraception
    • 1st birth control clinic
    • Children’s Bureau
  • 1930s to 1950s: World War II and Postwar Years
    • Employment opportunities
    • The Kinsey Report
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  • 1960s – 1970s: The Grassroots Movement
    • FDA approval of birth control pill
    • Civil Rights Act
    • Title VII
    • Congressional Caucus for Women’s Issues
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  • 1980s: Changing Public Policy
  • U.S. Public Health Service’s Tasks Force on Women’s Health
  • Office of Research on Women’s Health (ORWH)
  • The Women’s Health Equity Act
    • $ for health research: contraception, infertility, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, HIV/AIDS, and osteoporosis
    • Coverage of Pap smear screening and mammography
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  • 1990s: Women’s Health at the Forefront

Healthcare Institutions

Government

WOMEN’S HEALTH

Advocacy Organizations

Academia

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  • 1990s: Women’s Health at the Forefront
  • NIH Revitalization Act
  • Family and Medical Leave
  • Violence Against Women Act

The New Millennium

  • Human Genome
  • Women’s Health Initiative findings
  • Improved HIV/AIDS medications
  • Public Health Programs
  • Inclusion of children in clinical trials
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THE POLITICAL DIMENSION OF

WOMEN’S HEALTH

  • Policy making
  • Financing
  • Protecting the health of the public
  • Collecting and disseminating information about health and healthcare delivery systems
  • Capacity building for population health
  • Managing of health services
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DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIZATIONS &

GOVERNMENT AGENCIES

  • The Department of Health and Human Services’ Office on Women’s Health (DHHS-OWH)

serves as coordinating agency for…

    • National Institutes of Health (NIH)
    • Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
    • Centers for Disease Control and

Prevention (CDC)

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  • INVESTMENT in BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH
  • Increased life expectancy
  • Improved health throughout lifespan
  • Decreased cost of illness
  • Increased understanding of health factors
  • Inclusion of woman-specific data into clinical practice
  • Inclusion minorities as subjects
  • Increased gender-based research
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10 GENDER-RELATED DIFFERENCES

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10 GENDER-RELATED DIFFERENCES…

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REPRODUCTIVE RIGHTS

  • Legalization of Abortion: January 22, 1973
    • Roe v. Wade
  • “Global Gag Rule”: January 22, 2001
    • Foreign family planning agencies may not receive U.S. assistance
    • Restrictions = possible consequences
      • Increase in…unplanned pregnancies, abortions, maternal and infant deaths, transmission of HIV
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ACCESS TO HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS, SERVICES, AND HEALTH INFORMATION

  • Low socioeconomic status
  • Lack of health insurance
  • Lack of access to healthcare facilities and services
  • Language barriers and illiteracy
  • Unfair treatment by medical personnel due to race, ethnicity, or sexual orientation
  • Inability to pay for costs of treatment medications
  • Decline of coverage for healthcare costs deemed experimental
  • Fear of doctors leading to avoidance of healthcare
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GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE ON WOMEN’S HEALTH

  • 5 World Conferences for the Advancement of Women:
  • 1975: World Plan of Action
  • 1980:Convention of the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women
  • 1985:Birth of Global Feminism
  • 1995:Greatest Obstacles for Women’s Advancement
  • 2000:Women 2000 – Gender Equality, Development, and Peace for the 21st Century
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INFORMED DECISION-MAKING:

TAKE ACTION

  • INFORMATIVE WEBSITES:
  • National Organization for Women (NOW)
  • The National Women’s Health Information Center
  • The Office on Women’s Health
  • Office of Research on Women’s Health
  • Society for Women’s Health Research
  • Women’s Issues in Congress