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Extra Dimensions, Dark Energy and the Gravitational Inverse-Square Law. Liam J. Furniss, Humboldt State University. ?. Motivation. Some string theories predict stronger gravity at short distances. Accelerating expansion of the Universe could be explained by weaker gravity at short distances.

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Extra Dimensions, Dark Energy and the Gravitational Inverse-Square Law


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extra dimensions dark energy and the gravitational inverse square law

Extra Dimensions, Dark Energy and the GravitationalInverse-Square Law

Liam J. Furniss, Humboldt State University

?

motivation
Motivation
  • Some string theories predict stronger gravity at short distances.
  • Accelerating expansion of the Universe could be explained by weaker gravity at short distances.
  • Testing gravitation in this regime offers us a chance to test both theories at once.
modeling
Modeling

To model any “new” behavior we use the Yukawa potential:

our method

R

Our Method
  • Stepped pendulum with large, modulated attractor plate
  • Newtonian torque is weak and analytic
  • Principal challenge is achieving ~0.1mm separation

Modulate

separation

our method1
Our Method

Observed Yukawa component of torque:

sensitivity
Sensitivity
  • Torque sensitivity fundamentally limited by:
    • Thermal noise in the torsion fiber
    • Optical readout uncertainty due to torsion pendulum resonance
  • Thermal noise caused by random atomic motion varies with signal frequency:
sensitivity1
Sensitivity
  • Equation of motion for torsion pendulum:
  • Optical readout uncertainty also varies with signal frequency:
limiting systematic error
Limiting Systematic Error
  • Other sources of systematic noise include:
    • Viscous damping of pendulum motion
    • Electrostatic charge buildup
    • Seismic vibrations
  • Numerous experimental steps to eliminate these factors:
    • High vacuum (μTorr)
    • Electrostatic shield
    • High resolution tilt sensor
    • Magnetic damper
thermal isolation
Thermal Isolation

Tests of our isolation chamber and temperature controller show greatly increased thermal stability.

apparatus
Apparatus
  • Construction of thermal enclosure, vacuum chamber, magnetic damper, optical system and readout electronics complete
  • Preliminary pendulum tests this summer
  • Week-long run of experiment by year end

Thermal Isolation Enclosure

Vacuum Chamber

Torsion Fiber

Pendulum

Optical

Readout

Laser Beam

Attractor

expectations
Expectations

Provided we can restrict noise to near its fundamental limit, we expect to exceed previous experiments by a factor of 100

our research
Our Research
  • Tests theories of the very large and the very small simultaneously
  • Stepped pendulum is both simple and sensitive
  • 100x more sensitivity than previous experiments
  • Official experimental runs by year end

Financial support provided by Research Corporation grant CC6839 and the HSU College of Natural Resources and Sciences

References

1. N. Arkani-Hamed, S. Dimopoulos and G.R. Dvali, “New dimensions at a millimeter to a fermi and superstrings at a TeV,” Phys. Lett. B 436, 257 (1998).

2. D.B. Kaplan and M.B. Wise, “Couplings of a light dilaton and violations of. the equivalence principle,”JHEP0008, 037 (2000).

3. S. Perlmutter et al., "Measurements of W and  from 42 high-redshift supernovae,” Astrophys. J. 517, 565 (1999).

4. C.D. Hoyle et al., “Submillimeter tests of the gravitational inverse-square law,” Phys. Rev. D70 042004 (2004).

5. R. Sundrum, “Fat gravitons, the cosmological constant and submillimeter tests,” Phys. Rev. D69, 044014 (2004).

6. D.J. Kapner et al., “Tests of the gravitational inverse-square law below the dark-energy length scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 021101 (2007).

7. E.G. Adelberger, N.A. Collins, and C.D. Hoyle, “Analytic expressions for gravitational inner multipole moments of elementary solids and for the force between two rectangular solids,” Class. Quant. Grav. 23 125-136 (2006).