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Europe and Christendom before the Crusades and a Brief History of Islam before the 11 th Century. HIST 3004 9/4/13. Monasticism. Spiritual athletes Religious professionals removed from the world The Benedictine Rule: Govern the behavior of monks living in monasteries.

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europe and christendom before the crusades and a brief history of islam before the 11 th century

Europe and Christendom before the Crusades and a Brief History of Islam before the 11th Century

HIST 3004

9/4/13

monasticism
Monasticism
  • Spiritual athletes
  • Religious professionals

removed from the world

  • The Benedictine Rule:
    • Govern the behavior of monks

living in monasteries.

    • Balance of work and devotion.
    • Obligations of celibacy, poverty,

and obedience to the abbot.

    • Regular clergy: living apart

from society.

Benedict of Nursira (ca. 480-547)

cluny abbey
Cluny Abbey
  • Cluny: Benedictine abbey in eastern France
    • Founded in 910, free from secular and papal authority.
    • Donation from

William I, Duke of

Aquitaine

    • Center of reform

movement.

    • Authority over all

other Benedictine

abbeys.

manors and serfs
Manors and Serfs
  • Manors: Self-sufficient land
  • holdings
  • Serfs: Unfree peasants,
  • exchange labor on manors for
  • military protection.

Early 15th century representation of a French Manor

feudalism
Feudalism
  • Network of obligation
  • Titles to lands exchanged
  • for military service and loyalty
  • Payment of the military
  • and government officials through sources of wealth
  • instead of money.

Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne

carolingians 751 ca 888
Carolingians (751-ca. 888)
  • Charles Martel (737-741)
  • Battle of Tours (732)
  • Pepin (751-768)
  • Deposes Merovingian
  • kings with support of
  • Pope Zachary
charlemagne r 768 814
Charlemagne (r. 768-814)
  • Donation of
  • Constantine
  • Dec. 25th, 800:
  • Pope Leo III
  • crowns
  • Charlemagne
  • Emperor of Rome
holy roman empire
Holy Roman Empire
  • 962: Otto I, first non-Carolingian
  • Holy Roman Emperor, crowned
  • by Hildebert, Archbishop of
  • Mainz
investiture controversy
Investiture Controversy
  • Who has the right to appoint

clergy? Lay lords or the Pope.

  • Simony
  • Gregory VII (r. 1073-1085):

Reformist pope, assert church

authority

  • Excommunication of

Henry IV

  • Conquest of Rome and

establishment of counter

pope

peace and truce of god
Peace and Truce of God
  • Attempt to limit violence
  • Protect non-combatants
  • Preserve Sundays and holy days
  • Attempt to exert control over lay leaders
  • Threats of excommunication
the origins of i slam
The Origins of Islam
  • 610 CE: Muhammad receives

first revelations from

Jibrail

  • 622 CE: Hijra and foundation

of the first Muslim

community

  • 632 CE: Death of Muhammad
  • Codification of the Qur’an
  • Spread of Islam

Muhammad and Jibrail

the rise of islam
The Rise of Islam
  • When we say “the Rise of Islam,” what exactly are we referring to?
  • A religion…
  • A state…
  • A culture…
  • All of the above…

The Great Umayyad Mosque of Damascus

islam the religion
Islam, the religion
  • Monotheism
  • Shahada: lā ‘ilāha ‘illaAllāh
  • Abrahamic Religions

A gold dinar minted in 696 in Damascus; mihrabin Mosque of IbnTulun, Cairo, 1177;

flag of Saudi Arabia

abraham muhammad and the ka bah
Abraham, Muhammad, and the Kaʿbah

Destruction of idols from 11th century manuscript; Muhammad at the Kaʿbah from a 14th

century Ottoman manuscript