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So what's this then?. and what's this?. and where's this?. and this?. this?. this?. located here. and who is this?. Now you may recognise him. Mao Zedong .. who was China's leader from 1949 to 1976. And who gained support from. And depended upon.

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Mao zedong who was china s leader from 1949 to 1976

Mao Zedong ..

who was China's leader from 1949 to 1976

So what s this then

So Mao faced great problems when his forces seized control in 1949..China is a massive country with an enormous population. Making things happen requires tough action on a grand scale … and over the years, Mao used brutal force to put his form of communism into action. The Chinese Communist Party seized control of the media and any opposition was squashed mercilessly. Mao's policies and political purges of opponents may have caused the deaths of over 50 million people during his 30 years as leader.Mao did not accept any criticism of his policies … this was viewed as 'counter-revolutionary' and was dealt with severely. Mao wanted the Communist Party to control almost every element of people's lives … their work, their friends and even the number of children they had.

So what s this then

Deng Xiaoping in 1949..

(ruled China from 1978-1997)

He understood that after 30 years many of Mao's ideas were not working and that a new approach was required.

He introduced major economic changes saying, “To get rich is glorious” He made it easier for people to open their own businesses in the pursuit of personal wealth, so setting the scene for the remarkable economic growth which is going on today.

However, like Mao, Deng Xiaoping was no democrat. He ensured China would stay a one-party totalitarian state with the Communist party in complete control. He also ordered troops to open fire on unarmed protesters in Beijing's famous Tiananmen Square.

So what s this then

BBC's news report on what happened in the Tiananmen Sqare ....

The Tiananmen Square Massacre

One man s reaction to the army s brutality http www youtube com watch v u7mf9j8co70 feature related

One man's reaction to the army's brutality: ....

Tiananmen Square Massacre

And bringing things right up to date the present leader is
And bringing things right up to date ....the present leader is?

So what s this then

Hu Jintao ....

The President of the People’s Republic of China as well as the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China.

As you can see, he also understands the importance of the Chinese Army and other security forces in keeping a tight rein on such a huge country.

He is said to be cautious and loyal to the Party.

He does not welcome opposition to the CPC.

Hu jintao
Hu Jintao ....

  • low-key and reserved leadership style

  • represents transition of leadership from old, establishment Communists to younger, more pragmatic technocrats.

  • has been largely conservative with political reforms.

  • In foreign policy, Hu advocates "China's peaceful development", pursuing soft power in international relations - global influence in Africa, Latin America, and other developing countries has increased.

  • Hu has been involved in the Communist party bureaucracy for most of his adult life, notably as party chief for Tibet

  • Again … Hu Jintao is no democrat .. Under his leadership the CPC does not welcome protest and will deal with it harshly where it sees fit.

So what does the bbc website say about china under hu jintao
So what does the BBC website say about China under Hu Jintao?

  • The rate of economic change hasn't been matched by political reform, with the Communist Party retaining its monopoly on power and maintaining strict control over the people.

  • The authorities still crack down on any signs of opposition and send outspoken dissidents to labour camps.

And here s what it says about human rights in hu jintao s china
And here’s what it says about Human Rights in Hu Jintao’s China

  • Human rights campaigners continue to criticise China for executing hundreds of people every year and for failing to stop torture. The country is keen to stamp down on what it sees as dissent among its ethnic minorities, including Muslim Uighurs in the north-west. The authorities have also targeted the Falun Gong spiritual movement, which they designate an "evil cult".

  • Chinese rule over Tibet is controversial. Human rights groups accuse the authorities of the systematic destruction of Tibetan Buddhist culture and the persecution of monks loyal to the Dalai Lama, the exiled spiritual leader who is campaigning for autonomy within China.

Of course it s always good to give current examples in an exam so here s a case from december 2009
Of course, it’s always good to give current examples in an exam so here’s a case from December 2009 …

Chinese Dissident Liu Xiaobo jailed for subversion

  • Read what happened to Liu Xiaobo for taking the sort of action which people in the UK take every day without fear.


So what does all of this tell us
So what does all of this tell us? exam

  • It is important to understand there is a link between the rapid growth of the Chinese economy and the way the state (i.e. the Chinese govt) keeps control and crushes any dissent ...

So what s this then

  • Remember, a purely capitalist system would be competitive and efficient and good news for successful business people but very bad news for those who do not succeed.

  • A communist system where the government tries to control everything in the economy should in theory be fairer but, as the Soviet Union found, tends to be cumbersome and inefficient.

  • A mixed system (as in the UK) offers a compromise because capitalism brings efficiency and a democratic govt provides controls and a safety net to prevent the brutal results of pure capitalism

So what s this then

  • Meanwhile in China, and efficient and good news for successful business people but very bad news for those who do not succeed.

  • There is a communist government in virtually complete control which understands that elements of capitalism can be used to allow incredible growth … and wealth for a small proportion of the population. Think of Shanghai.

  • Now in our mixed system the Govt would act as a check on the worst effects of capitalism e.g. it take years, enquiries etc. to get permission to build a new airport.

  • Meanwhile in China, the state (i.e.govt) uses its vast powerto steamroller things through .. so if the economy can benefit from a new airport, one is quickly built .. if new skyscraper offices are required … they are built.

  • This is good for economic growth but can be terrible news for those who are in the way. Whole areas of cities can be swept aside for business development. And as we know …

So what s this then

  • Those groups who protest about the way things are and efficient and good news for successful business people but very bad news for those who do not succeed.

  • run in China are dealt with by the state machine.

  • Protest is silenced and dissent is crushed.

  • Think of what has happened in Tibet and the other examples you are studying in this part of the course.

And now it s your turn to do the work quite a lot of it actually so don t hang about
And now it’s your turn to do the work. and efficient and good news for successful business people but very bad news for those who do not succeed.Quite a lot of it actually … so don’t hang about.

Protest in china
Protest in China and efficient and good news for successful business people but very bad news for those who do not succeed.

  • Read pages 143 to 148 very carefully and make detailed notes on the following.

  • The Chinese Democracy Movement

  • Political participation in China

  • Trade Union participation (mention recent industrial action)

  • Participation at the grass roots

  • Dissidents

  • Nationalists groups

  • Homework

  • Read page 149 and research the current situation in Tibet – the BBC website may prove very useful for this.