Minerals and Rocks. Lecture Outline. What are minerals? Common rock-forming minerals Physical properties of minerals Basic rock types The rock cycle. Minerals. A mineral is a naturally occurring, solid crystalline substance, generally inorganic, with a specific chemical composition.
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A mineral is a naturally occurring, solid
crystalline substance, generally inorganic,
with a specific chemical composition
Minerals are the “building blocks” of rock
Mass of small grains: each is a crystal, but grown up against each other
Radii given in angstroms; 10-8 cm
Complex ions act as a single ion in forming crystal structure
Minerals with the same composition, but different crystal structure.
Minerals fall into a small number of related “families” based mainly on the anion in them
K+, Ca+, Na+, Mg2+, Al3+, Fe2+
CaCO3 + 2H+ = Ca2+ + CO2 + H2O
An aggregate of one or more minerals; or a body of undifferentiated mineral matter (e.g., obsidian); or of solid organic matter (e.g., coal)