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An active area of research at NCU is the study of FERMI Bubbles.  FERMI Bubbles are highly energetic gamma ray lobes which extend above and below the galactic center.  A current proposed explanation for the existence of these lobes is a periodic star-capture process in the Super-Massive Black Hole (SMBH) at the center of our galaxy.  The extreme tidal forces rip stars apart as they are absorbed by the SMBH, causing a large expulsion of energy outwards.  These photons are relativistic and are in the gamma ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Future Exploration

An Introduction to FERMI Bubbles

Alternate Mechanisms

PLUTO is a piece of software which can be downloaded freely onto any computer. It provides the capability of numerically solving Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics problems via conservation laws and finite-volume and finite-difference approaches.

PLUTO: An Astrophysical Hydrodynamics Code


Sod Shock-Tube

In order to create a suitable model for the FERMI Bubble phenomenon, the initialization files within the PLUTO directory must be modified in order to suit the problem at hand. Unfortunately, it took six weeks for me to fully learn how to manipulate said files, and I did not have time to create a presentable FERMI Bubble model.

Office of International Programs, SUNY Oswego

Dr. ShashiKanbur, SUNY Oswego

Dr. Chung-Ming Ko, NCU


National Central University, Graduate Institute of Astronomy

National Science Foundation's Office of International Science and Engineering award number 1065093

Office of International Programs, NCU

Another proposed mechanism for the presence of these mysterious FERMI Bubbles has to do with the possible existence of dark matter particles. Astrophysicists believe that super-massive black holes, much like the one at the center of our galaxy, emit jets. These jets can interact with dark matter particles, causing a release of photons

National Central University, Zhongli, Taiwan

SUNY Oswego, Oswego, NY

David O’Neill, Dr. Chung-Ming Ko

PLUTO: Applications to FERMI Bubble Modeling


In the future, I hope to apply the knowledge I obtained with PLUTO, and create more suitable FERMI Bubble models.

The current version of PLUTO allows for solving systems of fluid dynamics equations in:

Classical hydrodynamics (Euler equations)

Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)

Special Relativistic hydrodynamics (RHD)

Special Relativistic MHD

Orszag-Tang Vortex

Sedov-Taylor Blastwave

Fermi has been collecting gamma-ray spectrum data for about three years using the Large Area telescope. Using this data, they attempted to probe reliable conclusions which support the dark matter interaction theory.